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Full text of "The larvæ of the British butterflies and moths"




i^Tbrarg of % |$titsntm 



OF 



COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY, 



AT HARVARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



JfounticTi ij> prfbate subscrfplfon, fn 1861. 



Deposited by ALEX. AGASSIZ. 
No. // S~JJ 



THE 



RAT SOCIETY. 

66 



INSTITUTED MDCCCXLIV. 




This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for 

the Year 1888. 



LONDON 



MDCCCLXXXIX, 



THE LARVAE 



OF THE 



BRITISH BUTTERFLIES 



AND 



MOTHS. 

BY 

(the late) 

WILLIAM BUCKLER, 



EDITED BY 



H. T. STAINTON, F.R.S. 



Vol. III. 
(THE CONCLUDING PORTION OF THE BOMBYCES.) 



LONDON; 
PRINTED TOR THE RAY SOCIETY. 

MDCCCLXXXIX. 

o * « <\ ^ 



MCZ LIBRARY 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

CAMBRIDGE. MA USA 



PRINTED BY ADLAKD AND SON, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



PREFACE. 



In the second volume of this work the larvas of the 
first twenty- seven of our Bombyces appeared ; the 
present volume includes the remainder of our Bom- 
byces. 

Since the publication of Vol. II, the Hay Society 
has sustained a most serious loss in the death of the 
Rev. John Hellins, who had for so many years worked 
with Mr. Buckler at the subject of which these volumes 
treat. Though Mr. Hellins had not been in robust 
health of late years, it was hoped that he would have 
been spared to us for some years longer, to assist in 
the completion of several more of these volumes. 

The task which had specially devolved on the Rev. 
John Hellins was that of writing out the descriptions 
of those numerous larvaa, of which, although they had 
been faithfully depicted by Mr. Buckler, no descriptive 
notes by him were extant amongst his papers, nor had 
he at any time published descriptions of them. Thus, 
out of the seventy-nine larva3 figured in the present 
volume, only thirty-two were described at the time of 
Mr. Buckler's decease. 

We had hoped that descriptions of a large propor- 
tion of the forty-seven which were thus deficient 
would have been furnished by Mr. Hellins, but, un- 



VI PREFACE. 

fortunately, his sudden death on the 9th May, 1887, 
when just in the very midst of his labours (when he 
was actually receiving larvae by almost every post from 
some of his numerous friends) compelled us to seek for 
help in other quarters. 

This, however, we found a most difficult matter ; 
those who had the necessary skill and capacity for 
describing larvse lacked the time. After some anxious 
correspondence on the subject, it was hoped a solution 
of the difficulty had been found, and it was announced 
in the pages of the 'Entomologist's Monthly Maga- 
zine,' vol. xxiv, p. 20, in the obituary notice of the 
Rev. John Hellins, that " at the earnest solicitation of 
the Ray Society, Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, of Fairlawn 
House, Worthing,- Sussex, had kindly, undertaken to 
take up the broken thread of Mr. Hellins' work." 

Since this announcement was made in June, 1887, 
Mr. Fletcher has devoted much time and no smal] 
amount of patience to the task, but unfortunately the 
more he worked at the subject the more it seemed to 
grow, and his ideas of what a complete description 
should be developed even in a larger proportion ; so 
that just when his MS. was expected to be ready for 
press he found that still another year or two of obser- 
vation was needed to render the matter which he had 
to furnish worthy of the subject and of the reputation 
of the Ray Society. 

In this dilemma he wrote to me to the following 

effect : 

Bersted Lodge, JBognor, Sussex ; 
December 31st, 1888. 

My dear Sir, 

I am afraid the object of this letter will 
not be very agreeable to you, and I am certainly sorry 



PREFACE. Vli 

to have to write it. Briefly, it is to ask you to release 
me from the work I have undertaken for the Ray 
Society. I find that to do it as it should be done 
would require all my time unceasingly, summer and 
winter, for many years. This I cannot give to it. 
My engagements other than entomological are so 
increasingly numerous that were I entirely to give up 
collecting on my own account, and to devote myself to 
the Ray Society's work alone, I could not carry it out 
as it should be done. 

When you first asked me to undertake the work, I 
thought that Mr. Buckler had written out most of the 
life-histories and that merely an odd species here and 
there had to be worked out if possible. I little dreamt 
that nearly all the common, and many of the less 
obtainable larvse had not been described by him. 

Had I a lot of old material by me, the position would 
be different from what it is. Coming in while the 
volumes are being published, and starting anew with 
no chance of checking one year's work by repeating it 
in the following season, can only result in the accumu- 
lation of a mass of undigested information probably 
full of inaccuracy and, in any case, quite unworthy of 
the splendid series of volumes published by the 
Society. 

The following reasons, among others, have made 
me realise that it is not possible for me to carry out 
the task properly : 

(1) During my absence from home, and indeed, 
owing to pressure of work when I am there, larvse 
often change their skins and pass a stage unobserved 
and undescribed, when, in my opinion, all the labour 
spent on them becomes useless, and should be repeated 



Vlll PREFACE. 

another year, this being, under the present circum- 
stances, impossible. 

(2) I find it is only possible to study a few life- 
histories in any one year. 

(3) It is only in trying to write out some of my 
notes that I have found out the form in which they 
can best be taken. Needless to say that mine, copious 
as they are, are not in that form. 

When inviting me to take up the work hitherto 
done by Mr. Hellins, you introduced the subject by 
asking the question " Who is to do it?" May I now 
tardily answer it, Sussex fashion, with another query, 
" Why do it ?" Why not publish the Plates, together 
with Messrs. Buckler's and Hellins' articles and notes, 
as their work pure and simple ? This course would, in 
my opinion, result in the production of a grand work 
of reference, which would be for the United Kingdom 
what Hubner's great work is for the Continent. 

I must again apologise for the inconvenience you 
have been caused by the course I have taken. You 
will probably agree with me that to have been inun- 
dated with a mass of ill-digested materials would have 
been a worse evil still, and will allow at least that I 
am doing at last what I ought to have done earlier in 
asking you to release me from the duty I had under- 
taken. 

With the best wishes of the season, 

I am 
Yours very truly 

W. H. B. Fletcher. 

H. T. Stainton, Esq., F.R.S., 

Mountsfield, Lewisham. 

In this position of affairs it has been decided to 



PREFACE. IX 

restrict the letterpress of this volume to the materials 
left by Mr. Buckler and Mr. Hellins, without further 
seeking for any extraneous aid. 

As in the previous volumes, the letters W. B. or J. H. 
after each description indicate whether written by 
William Buckler or by John Hellins, and the figures 
immediately following give the date when the descrip- 
tion was written for publication, the reference that 
follows being to the volume and page of the ' Ento- 
mologist's Monthly Magazine,' or to Mr. Buckler's 
Note Books. 

"We are again indebted to Mr. G. 0. Bignell for a 
list of the parasites bred from the larvae of which the 
present volume treats. 

H. T. STAINTON. 



MOUNTSFIELD, LeWISHAM ; 

January 2hth, 1889. 



CONTENTS OP VOL. III. 






Diloba caeruleocephala 
Petasia nubeculosa . 
Peridea trepida 
Orgyia antiqua 
Miltochrista miniata 
Lithosia caniola 

— aureola 

— helvola 

— stramineola 

— complana 

— complanula 

— molybdeola (sericea) 

— griseola 

— pygmseola 

— rnuscerda 
CEnistis quadra 
Gnophria rubricollis 
Cybosia mesomella 
Philea irrorella 
Nudaria mundana . 

— senex . 
Nola strigula 

— albulalis 

— centonalis 
Spilosoma lubricepeda 
Deiopeia pulchella . 
Lasiocampa quercus 

v. callunae 

Po3cilocampa populi 
Odonestis potatoria 
Endromis versicolor 
Drepana sicula 

— hamula 
Heterogenea asellus 
List of Parasites bred from tbose famil 

are included in this volume 
Index 



ies of the 



PAGE 

1 
4 
9 
11 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
19 
21 
22 
23 
25 
26 
29 
34 
34 
36 
37 
37 
39 
41 
44 
50 
52 
56 
58 
58 
60 
60 
66 
73 
73 



Bombycina which 



77 
80 



CLASSIFIED LIST OP THE SPECIES 



IN THIS VOLUME. 



HETEROCERA. 



Group BOMBYCINA. 

Family Notodontid2E (continued) 
Diloba cseruleocephala 
Petasia cassinea 

„ nubeculosa 
Peridea trepida 
Clostera reclusa 

„ anachoreta 

,, curtula 
Pygaara bucephala 

Family Liparid^e. 
Psilura monacha 
Hypogymna dispar 
Dasychira fascelina 
„ pudibunda 
Demas coryli . 
Orgyia antiqua . 

„ gonostigma 
Lselia csenosa . 
Stilpnotia salicis 
Porthesia chrysorrhoea 
„ auriflua . 

Family Lithosiid^e. 
Miltochrista miniata 
Lithosia caniola 
„ aureola 

helvola 



PAGE 



PLATE 



1 


XXXVI, fig. 1 




XXXVI, fig. 2 


4 


XXXVI, fig. 3 


9 


XXXVI, fig. 4 




.. XXXVII, fig. 1 




.. XXXVII, fig. 2 




.. XXXVII, fig. 3 




... XXXVII, fig. 4 




... XXXVII, fig. 5 




... XXXVII, fig. 6 




... XXXVIII, fig. 1 




... XXXVIII, fig. 2 




... XXXVIII, fig. 3 


11 


XXXIX, fig. 1 




XXXIX, fig. 2 




XXXIX, fig. 3 




XXXIX, fig. 4 




XL, fig. 1 




XL, fig. 2 


13 


XL, fig. 3 


14 


XL, fig. 4 


15 


XL, fig. 5 


16 


XL, fig. 6 



XIV 



CLASSIFIED LIST OP THE SPECIES. 





PAGE 


PLATE 


Family Lithosiid^e (continued) — 






Lithosia stramineola 


. 17 


XLI, fig. 1 


., complana . 


19 


XLI, fig. 2 


,, complanula 


21 


XLI, fig. 3 


., molybdeola (sericea) . 


22 


XLI, fig. 4 


,. griseola . . . 


23 


XLI, fig. 5 


pygmaaola . 


25 


XLI, fig. 6 


,, muscerda . 


26 


XLI, fig. 7 


(Enistis quadra . 


29 


XLII, fig. 1 


Gnophria rubricollis 


34 


XLII, fig. 2 


Cybosia mesomella . 


34 


XLII, fig. 3 


Philea irrorella 


36 


XLII, fig. 4 


Nudaria mundana . 


37 


XLIII, fig. 1 


„ senex 


37 


XLIII, fig. 2 


Family Nolid^:. 






Nola cucullatella . 




XLIII, fig. 3 


,, strigula . 


39 


XLIII, fig. 4 


., albulalis . 


41 


XLIII, fig. 5 


,, centonalis . 


44 


XLIII, fig. 6 


,, cristulalis . 




XLIII, fig. 7 



Family Chelonid^. 

Hypercompa dominula . . . ... XLIV, fig- 1 

Euthemonia russula ... ... XLIY, fig. 2 

Arctia caja '(N.B. — No figure of the adult larva by Mr. Buckler 
which would bear reproduction exists ; being one of our very 
commonest species, it could be figured at any time ; moreover, 
every entomologist is perfectly familiar with the larva, and 



needs no figure of it. 
„ villica 
Nemeophila plantaginis 
Phragmatobia fuliginosa 
Spilosoma menthastri 
,, papyratia 

,, lubricepeda 

Diaphora mendica . 
Callimorpha jacobaese 
Eulepia cribrum 
Deiopeia pulchella . 

Family BOMBYCID^. 
Lasiocampa rubi 

,, trifolii . 

,, quercus 



-H. T. S.) 



50 



52 



56 



XLIY, fig. 3 

XLIY, fig. 4 

XLIY, fig. 5 

XLY, fig. 1 

XLY, fig. 2 

XLY, fig. 3 

XLY, fig. 4 

XLY, fig. 5 

XLYI, fig. 1 

XLYI, fig. 2 

XLYI, fig. 3 



XLYI, fig. 4 
XLYII, fig. 1 
XL VII, fig. 2 



CLASSIFIED LIST OF THE SPECIES. 



XV 



PAGE 



Family Bombycid^ (continued) — 
Lasiocampa quercus, var. callimae 
Eriogaster lanestris . 
Poecilocampa populi 

Trichiura cratsegi 
Clisiocampa castrensis 

„ neustria 

Odonestis potatoria . 
Gastropacha quercifolia 
„ ilicifolia 

Family Endromid^e. 
Endromis versicolor 



58 



58 



60 



60 



PLATE 

XL VII, fig. 3 

XLYIII, fig. 1 

XL VIII, fig. 2 

XLIX, fig. 1 

XLIX, fig. 2 

L, fig. 1 

L, fig. 2 

L, fig. 3 

LI, fig. 1 

LI, fig. 2 

LI, fig. 3 



Family Saturnid^e. 






Saturnia carpini 


• 


LII, fig. 1 


Family Platypterygid^e 






Cilix spinula 


. 


LII, fig. 2 


Platypteryx lacertinaria . 




LII, fig. 3 


Drepana sicula . 


. 06 


LII, fig. 4 


,, falcataria . 


. ... 


LIII, fig. 1 


„ liamula 


. 73 


L1II, fig. 2 


„ unguicula . 


. 


LIII, fig: 3 


Family Psychid^e. 






Psyche nigricans 


. 


LIII, fig. 4 


„ fusca 


. 


LIII, fig. 5 


Fumea nitidella 


. 


LIII, fig. 6 


Family Cochliopodida:. 






Heterogenea asellus . 


. 73 


LIII, fig. 7 


Limacodes testudo . 


. 


LIII, fig. 8 



THE JjARVM 



OF THE 



BRITISH MOTHS. 



DlLOBA CMERULE0CEPHALA. 

Plate XXXVI, fig. 1. 

During the winter of 1881^82 the Rev. J. Hellins 
sent me three eggs of cceruleocephala ; they were brown 
and apparently ribbed, but the ribs could not be 
counted as they were so curiously covered with bristly 
brown hairs. On the 6th of February Mr. Hellins 
asked to have them returned, as he had lost those he 
had kept for himself, so I returned them. On the 11th 
of March he reported that two of them had hatched 
and were bristly little fellows. 

On the 30th of March I received one of the larvse, 
that had passed its first moult, feeding on white- 
thorn ; it was 4 lines long or 11 mm., of stoutish and 
uniform proportion, of a lightish grey colour with 
yellow dorsal stripe and spiracular line, black head, 
and a streak of yellow across the upper lip, a black 
oblong squarish spot across the middle of the second 
segment, a transverse series of round black dots on 
the third and fourth, on the back of those beyond they 
occurred in trapezoids, a larger oval black spot was 
on the front part of the thirteenth segment, and a black 
plate on the anal flap ; one black dot on the side of 

vol. in. • 1 



2 DILOBA OJ1RULEOCEPHALA. 

each segment, a smaller one following rather lower 
down near the division and touching the spiracular 
yellow line ; the black spiracle being situated between 
the two dots ; close beneath the yellow line occurred 
a black dot followed by another lower down and more 
behind, and another on each proleg ; the belly was 
light greyish-green ; a black hair proceeded from each 
black spot. Skin smooth and rather glistening. 

On the 5th of April, this larva having moulted a 
second time, came again to me, and on the 6th I 
figured it. It now measured 6 lines, or 13 mm. long, 
and of stouter proportion ; the ground colour of the 
body a deep bluish-grey, the dorsal and spiracular 
stripes bright yellow, the dorsal widening at the end 
of each segment, except on the third segment, where it 
was a transverse bar in the middle ; no yellow on the 
head nor on the back of the second segment, where 
the ground was of a paler grey than the rest of the 
body, as it also was on the thirteenth segment ; the 
yellow dorsal mark on the twelfth segment was very 
much broader than on others ; the yellow spiracular 
stripe was straight at its lower margin and widest at 
the end of each segment ; the lobes of the head black 
and glossy, centre part of face between them light grey, 
marked above the lip with black ; mouth black. The 
squarish black plate on the second segment was com- 
posed of four black shining spots run together, but 
dorsally divided by a fine thread of light grey. The 
other round black spots of the body appeared velvety 
from their being covered with short bristly pubescence, 
and each spot emitted a black hair. Belly leaden-grey 
with black spots, some of them of smaller size. 

On the 13th of April, after the third moult (which 
is supposed to have occurred on the 10th — 11th), the 
length was 15 mm., or nearly five-eighths of an inch, 
and of stouter proportion, having an elevated trans- 
verse ridge on the middle of the back of the third 
segment and another on the twelfth ; the ground colour 
of the head was greyish- white, likewise the dorsal line 



DILOBA C^RULEOCEPHALA. 3 

of the second segment and the anal flap ; the colour 
of the body, i. e. the back and belly, was very dark 
slaty-grey, the dorsal stripe and the spiracular stripe 
of bright pale yellow as before ; the lobes of the head 
had each a large black spot on the crown ; the ocelli 
in a black spot below, the face and lip greyish-white, 
also papillae tipped with black, edge of lip black ; the 
second segment pale yellow across the middle with 
two pairs of black spots in front and again at the back ; 
the ridge on the third segment was bright yellow, 
bearing two black tubercles, that on the twelfth seg- 
ment also yellow, bearing four black tubercles in pairs ; 
all the tubercles were velvety-black and bristly; the 
dorsal ones on the third and fourth segments bore two 
long black hairs, but all the others only one black hair ; 
a black, horny oval spot was on the outer side of each 
ventral proleg ; anterior legs black. By the 16th of 
April it had become 9J lines long or 20 mm., and by 
the 18th was 11 lines or 23 mm. long. 

By the morning of April 25th it had moulted again 
for the fourth time, and on the 29th measured 1 J inches 
or 32 mm., stout and cylindrical ; a transverse elevated 
ridge across the middle of the third and twelfth seg- 
ments of bright pale yellow ; the dorsal yellow stripe 
was a little interrupted at the end of each segment ; 
the spiracular stripe was broadish and abruptly con- 
trasted with the dingy greenish smoky-grey of the 
belly, but above was softened off a little into the 
greenish-grey of the side, and this was separated from 
the very pale bluish -grey of the back by a subdorsal 
stout line of white, very softly edged and faint. 

By the 6th of May, when stretched out it was 1^ 
inches long and stout in proportion, the skin smooth 
(apparently) but without gloss, the black spots round, 
dull, and rough, each surrounded by a whitish halo. 
By the 8th it was full-fed, and in a day or two began 
to contract in length and wander about until the 12th, 
when in the course of the night it spun itself up within 
an oval cocoon of whitish silk overlaid with portions 



4 DILOBA C/ERULEOOEPHALA. 

of hawthorn leaves, so as to cover and almost hide the 
cocoon. The moth, a female, emerged on the 26th of 
October. 

The oblong cocoon when cut open was found to be 
very tough and strong, white and smooth within. The 
pupa of true Bombyx shape measured 7 lines in length 
and of stout proportions, the abdominal tip furnished 
with two lateral projections suggestive of the previous 
anal prolegs, and each bearing several bristly hairs, 
and traces yet remained, though minute, on other parts 
of the former hairs of the tubercular warts ; the entire 
surface of every part being very dull and rather rough, 
while a band of stronger roughness, approaching almost 
to thorny points, was on the middle of the back of each 
abdominal segment. The colour was of a sooty brown- 
ish-black or blackish-brown ; spiracles rather promi- 
nent. (W. B., Note Book IV, 104.) 



Petasia nubeculosa. 

Plate XXXYI, fig. 3. 

On the 6th of May, 1881, I received from Mr. H. 
Mc Arthur, while he was collecting at Rannoch, a dozen 
eggs of this species, laid loose or on small morsels of 
bark; of these two proved infertile, the first egg 
hatched on May 16th being one I had previously sent 
to the Rev. J. Hellins ; with me two were seen to be 
hatched in the early morning of the 17th, two at mid- 
night, three by next morning, one near midnight 
following, and the last one by the morning of the 19th. 
All my young larvae took to birch readily, but the one 
in Mr. Hellins' care chose oak, and fed on it until its 
third moult, and from that time, the 4th of June, it 
would eat birch and not oak. After feeding their growth 
was very perceptible, and when six days old they each 
in turn lay up for moulting ; *this operation occurred 
five times in all before their full growth was attained. 



PETASIA NUBECULOSA. 5 

Generally they agreed very well together, though two 
individuals during the earlier stages, while helplessly 
laid up waiting to moult, appeared to have been incon- 
veniently in the way of some of the others, and so 
got fatally bitten behind ; afterwards, with more space, 
they proved to be very contented and well-behaved. 

They became full-fed from June 26th to 29th and 
retired to earth ; over the earth, at the end of June, I 
placed a thick covering of moss, and found after- 
wards that only two had elected to remain below in the 
earth, and the other five were lying in the pupa state 
on its surface beneath the moss ; the larva, with Mr. 
Hellins, had buried itself four or five inches deep in 
the loose leaf-mould furnished for its retreat. 

I bred three male moths and one female in March, 
1882 ; the single pupa of Mr. Hellins' stood over a 
second winter and disclosed a fine male imago, Feb- 
ruary 15th, 1883 ; my remaining pupge produced five 
male and female specimens April 1st, 1883. 

It has been pointed out before that the egg of 
Nubeculosa (as well as those of P. Cassinea and Diloba 
cceruleocephala) does not so much follow the Notodonta 
as the Noctua* type, being circular and convex above, 
with a largish central space covered with irregular 
reticulation, and on the sides from forty to forty-five 
blunt ribs, with somewhat coarse transverse lines ; in 
height about one thirty-sixth of an inch, in width 
about one twenty-fourth ; the shell rather glistening, 
the colour at first dirty drab-green but soon becoming 
closely and tortuously streaked and blotched with 
blackish-green ; a few hours before hatching these 
marks become indistinct and clouded, and the shell 
looks somewhat shrivelled. 

The newly-hatched larva is about one tenth of an inch 
in length, with the first and second pairs of ventral pro- 
legs less developed than the third and fourth pairs, so 
that the walk is semi-looping ; the head of a rather light, 
shining orange-brown colour ; the back slaty-grey ; the 

* Many systematists class these species amongst the Noctua — H. T. S, 



6 PETASIA NUBECULOSA. 

sides pale drab ; the black warts very large and round, 
each furnished with a small black bristle. In this stage 
the likeness to cceruleocephala is marked, but at each 
moult the warts become proportionately smaller and less 
conspicuous, besides assuming another colour, and so 
this resemblance disappears. From the first the young 
larva eats small holes quite through the leaves of its 
food, and I noticed its habit of spinning a few threads 
for afoot-hold. 

After the first moult a slight protuberance appeared 
on the twelfth segment and front portion of the thir- 
teenth ; the ground colour was pale greenish, bearing 
dorsal to subdorsal lines of paler dots, and on the 
middle segments a wide sort of incomplete V in very 
fine black lines ; the black tubercular dots were much 
smaller than before, and only to be seen with a lens, 
but their bristles had become longer ; the anterior legs 
were black, and on the outside of each ventral proleg 
was a black spot. 

After the second moult the head was pale shining 
green, the body light dull green, having a purplish 
tinge in it, the tubercular dots pale yellowish, the 
dorsal markings composed of elongate whitish-yellow 
dots, two on a segment, and along the subdorsal region 
were four yellowish dots on each segment, a slanting 
streak of the same colour appeared on the side of the 
fourth, and a transverse streak on the ridge of the 
twelfth, and a black spot on each ventral proleg as 
before. 

Having moulted the third time, June 3rd — 5th, the 
larvse began to assume their well-known star-gazing 
posture, with all the front part of the body extended 
upward in a curve, bringing the head so far back as to 
be elevated just over the eleventh segment, while the 
anterior legs were freely outspread, the third pair 
wider apart than the others ; all the details of colour 
being similar to those of the previous stage. 

The fourth moult happened on the 9th — 10th of 
June, and they soon resumed feeding, eating large 



PETASIA NUEECULOSA. / 

pieces out of the leaves at intervals, and at other times 
were to be seen for long periods hanging to the birch 
sprays motionless in their singular attitude of repose, 
but yet so suggestive of great muscular exertion and 
watchfulness. Their growth now seemed rapid, as in 
the course of three days they were observed, when in 
motion, to be an inch and three lines long, stout, and 
thickest behind, their colouring of the same light green 
as before, the upper surface bearing rather warty 
spots of bright yellow and slash-like streaks of the 
same yellow on the thoracic and posterior segments ; 
the anterior legs black, ringed with ochreous at the 
joints. Some individuals still bore the large roundish 
black spot above the foot of each ventral proleg, while 
others had only a black outline of it, or part of it. 

The fifth moult occurred between the 15th and 19th 
of June, and for a time after this operation the head 
was of rougher texture than heretofore, but gradually 
in three or four days it regained its glossiness. The 
larva did not now so often assume its posture of con- 
templative repose, but seemed more intent on its con- 
sumption of food, and in the shorter intervals of rest 
was to be seen lying quite at full length, or in a gentle 
curve, along the birch twigs, quite flat and lethargic, 
until almost full-fed; but when this stage was reached, 
it was again frequently to be seen in its more charac- 
teristic position. When quite full-grown the larva was 
2 inches in length and of thickness in proportion, 
with a very soft skin ; the head full and rounded, with 
lobes slightly defined ; the body cylindrical, with plump 
segments deeply divided as far as the twelfth, and 
there tumid and humped with a slight dorsal ridge, 
then sloping, and tapering a little on the very long 
front part of the thirteenth and still more on the short 
anal flap, deep wrinkles subdividing only the thoracic 
third and fourth segments. The anterior legs rather 
small, but set on large pectoral muscular foundations ; 
the ventral and anal prolegs stout, with well-developed 
feet, and hooks to secure prehension and progression. 



8 PETASiA NUBtiOULOSA. 

The colour of the head was now pale bluish-green, the 
upper lip whitish or else pale yellow, the mouth black, 
the back of a delicate pale yellowish-green, becoming 
paler and opaque from the thoracic segments to the 
twelfth, and blending gradually into a deeper brilliant 
yellowish transparent green on the sides and belly. 
The slightly raised spots were all of pale primrose- 
yellow, the dorsal series elongate-oval in shape, two 
on each segment, one beyond the other, in a broken 
line on the fifth to the eleventh inclusive ; the other 
series of spots were of round shape, such as the trape- 
zoidally-arranged fours of the back, the subdorsal 
broken line of threes, the lateral single spot, and the 
single spot below each spiracle, which was itself white, 
tenderly outlined with black ; a transverse series of 
four spots showed faintly on the fourth segment, a 
small tumid side streak of the same yellow was on the 
third, and another conspicuously larger and longer 
was on the fourth, slanting down obliquely forwards ; 
two spots were on the back of the twelfth segment, 
and behind them on the summit two much larger spots 
united to a tumid curved streak of yellow ; a con- 
spicuous tumid side streak of similar yellow began 
behind the spiracle, tapering off on the margin of the 
anal flap. The anterior legs were bright red, and out- 
side each ventral proleg was a roundish ring of black, 
the feet being furnished with brown hooks. 

The pupa is a full inch in length, and 4^ lines 
in width at the thickest part across the ends of 
the short wing-covers, the antenna-cases well deve- 
loped ; the head and thorax smooth, the wing-covers 
most minutely roughened, also the upper portions of 
the abdominal rings ; the free segments of the abdomen 
are very deeply cut, and taper gradually towards the 
end, but with dissimilar outline on the ventral and 
dorsal surfaces ; the ventral becoming bluntly rounded, 
and the dorsal rising somewhat in a hump, from which 
springs the base of a prolonged stout spike, whose 
blunt extremity is furnished with two fine tapering 



PETASIA JSUBECULOSA. 9 

points bent downwards and curved like claws ; the 
colour is a deep and dingy red during the first year, 
and in the second becomes a blackish-brown, bearing 
a slight purplish gloss. (W. B., 9, 4, 83; E.M.M. 
XIX, 271.) 

Peridea trepida. 
Plate XXXVI, fig. 4. 

On the 26th of April, 1870, Mrs. Hutchinson kindly 
sent me twelve eggs of trepida, which began to hatch 
May 11th, and were all out on the 12th. 

The egg is circular, convex above, flattened beneath, 
smooth ; of a delicate bluish opaque white, which it 
retains to the last ; the only slight change that occurs 
just a few days before hatching is that a small grey 
speck becomes indistinctly visible in the centre. 

The newly-hatched larvaa were robust-looking little 
fellows, of a greenish-yellow colour, with black dots 
and hairs, the head and its lobes being outlined with 
black. At this early age, as soon as extruded from the 
egg, it assumes the posture in repose, which is so 
characteristic of this species through all its larval 
existence, its back forming a hollow curve with the 
head and tail erected free from the surface of the leaf 
to which it is attached. 

At its third moult its length was about five- eighths 
of an inch, it had then its characteristic stripes, viz. a 
double pale yellow dorsal and oblique side stripes on 
a green ground colour, from which the black dots had 
disappeared. * * * * (W. B., Note Book II, 
136.) 

On the 23rd of May, 1882, I received two eggs laid 
on the underside of oak bark, set up in a wood to dry 
about a week before ; these eggs were part of a batch 
so found by a son of Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, who sent them 
to me. 

The shape of the egg is hemispherical, that is, 



10 PERIDEA TREPlDA. 

rounded above and with a flattened base attached to 
the bark, apparently smooth and of pure white surface, 
though when they came I could just see a faint light 
brownish spot showing through the top of the egg, 
the shell being otherwise quite opaque. They both 
hatched in the early morning of the 27th, and the 
shell could then be seen to be quite thick, of a bluish- 
green substance within, and externally with a layer of 
opaque white. 

The head of the young larva was remarkably large, 
the body tapering thence behind ; in colour it was 
wholly of a light, rather olive- or ochreous-greenish ; 
anterior legs black and dots blackish, each dot having 
a fine black hair. On the night of June 2nd they 
moulted the first time, and by the morning of the 3rd 
they were feeding quite through the leaf from the edge 
(previously they had eaten between the veins, skele- 
tonising the margin of the leaf). They were green in 
colour, with a streak of blackish behind, down each 
cheek to the mouth, the back rather deeper green with 
a darker dorsal line, and a faint yellowish subdorsal 
line ; dots and hairs black. 

On the 10th and 12th of June they moulted the 
second time, and in four days the slanting yellow 
streaks appeared on the sides as puffed slashes ; the 
double dorsal, pale yellow lines, having between them 
a dark green central line, were suggestive of the future 
design, the subdorsal line yellow and very thin, the 
slanting side stripes faintly edged with dark red ; on 
the head was a fine black streak down the middle of 
each lobe, and another down the back of each cheek. 

Both larvae moulted the third time on the 21st, and 
both for the fourth time on the 30th of June, and fed 
well the next day, but on the 3rd of July I found one 
was lying dead. The other became a fine thick fellow, 
brilliantly coloured, but by the 14th July it was 
becoming of a more dingy green, and the next day had 
spun itself up in a brownish cocoon between leaves of 
oak. (W. B., Note Book IV, 112.) 



OEGYIA ANTIQUA. 11 

ORGYIA ANTIQUA. 

Plate XXXIX, fig. 1. 

Eggs laid on a cocoon-like web upon a spray of Acacia 
dealbata, in the gardens of the Crystal Palace at 
Sydenham, sent me by Mr. George Thomson, March 
18th, 1879. 

The eggs laid close and evenly together side by side. 
The egg is rounded, having near the top a slight rim, 
which swells out a little, the flat top having a central 
depression. Colour of the egg shining reddish-brown. 
These eggs never changed colour. They began to hatch 
June 21st, 1879, a few at a time. 

The newly-hatched larva was dark brown, with 
segments 5 to 8 darker brown, a paler triangular spot 
on the back of the ninth, a darker brown spot on the 
twelfth ; the tubercles dark brown, one on either side of 
the front of the second segment longer than the others, 
with longish brown hairs, some longer than others. 

After its first moult it grew to a length of three- 
sixteenths of an inch, it had then a pale patch on the 
back of the fourth segment, which rather divided in 
front, encroaching a little on the third segment; another 
distinct pale patch was on the back of the ninth, and 
a palish dorsal spot on the back of the tenth and 
eleventh, and a transverse pale mark on the front of 
the thirteenth segment ; a pale but rather interrupted 
subdorsal line was visible from the fifth, faintly to the 
ninth, and thence to the twelfth segment distinctly. 

By the 19th of July a great many had completed 
their third moult, and had now assumed the character- 
istic tufts of hairs like shaving brushes on the back, on 
the fifth and sixth segments blackish, on the seventh 
and eighth whitish, and on the tenth and eleventh a 
pinkish tubercle, a longish tuft of black clubbed hairs 
on the twelfth, slanting backwards ; on each side of 
the front of the second segment, at an angle laterally 
pointing forwards, a tuft or fascicle of longer hairs, 



12 0RGY1A ANTIQUA. 

but of varying lengths, blackish-plumed and clubbed at 
their tips. 

By the 27th three or four had accomplished their 
fourth moult, with tufts of quite white hairs down their 
back ; they were then three-quarters of an inch long. 

By the 19th of August they were full-grown, and 
1| inches in length ; the white brush-like hairs on 
the back tipped with brownish, the black hairs plumed 
and clubbed as before on each side of the second 
segment, and on the back of the twelfth ; cream- 
coloured hairs radiated from the other tubercles, longer 
and more numerous on the lower rows along the sides ; 
ground colour of the body cool velvety-grey, a black 
velvet stripe down the back, more or less interrupted 
by the brushes and by brilliant red tubercles, a black 
or blackish line followed on each side more or less 
distinct or broken ; head shining black, upper lip pale 
creamy-white, mouth black ; on segments 9, 10, 11 and 
12 the black dorsal stripe was bordered with cream 
colour as a narrow stripe. 

In some individuals the ground colour was greyish- 
olive, and the red tubercles were outlined with cream 
colour. 

All the above died off nearly mature. 

I received some more eggs on the 9th April, 1 880 ; 
they began to hatch May 14th.* I fed the young 
larvae with sallow. The first moult took place the 18th 
and 19th of May. These larvae throve well on sallow, 
and the earliest began to spin their cocoons on the 
17th and 18th of June. The moths began to appear 
on July 10th, when I bred two <? and two ? ; on the 
13th appeared three S and on the 17th one S • (W. 
B., Note Book IV, 1.) 

* The larvse continued to Latch about two a day, sometimes three, 
but generally two until the 29th May, when there were twenty-one 
hatched, and I cast adrift the remaining eggs. 



MILTOCHRISTA MINIATA. 13 

MlLTOCHRISTA MINIATA. 

Plate XL, fig. 3. 

Eggs were obtained from a female which had been 
captured July 18th, 1867. The larvae were hatched 
before the end of the month, they fed slowly but 
almost continuously till the end of the following May, 
by which time six out of nineteen survived to spin up. 
The moths emerged between the 19th and 30th June, 
1868. 

The food at first chosen was a sallow leaf, which 
had become damp and rotten by being kept in a glass- 
stoppered bottle ; afterwards when placed out of doors 
in a flower-pot they ate withered oak and sallow leaves 
and various lichens ; in the spring they nibbled the 
slices of turnips put in with them as traps for slugs, 
and at last settled down steadily to eat the red waxy 
tips of Lichen caninus, and fed up to quite full size on 
this food. In a state of nature I understand they are 
found feeding upon the lichens that grow on the boles 
of oak trees. 

The eggs of miniata are very different from the usual 
round pearly beads of the Lithosice, being more fusi- 
form in shape, rich yellow in colour, and placed on 
end with great regularity at a little distance from each 
other in rank and file. My batch of eggs was deposited 
in four rows, viz. three of five eggs each, and one of 
four. 

The larvae from the first were little dingy, foggy - 
looking fellows, with a quantity of fine hair on their 
backs, and although after the last moult their plumes 
became denser and darker than before, yet a descrip- 
tion of the last stage is applicable throughout. 

When full-grown, the length is a trifle over half an 
inch, the hairs that project before and behind making 
it look a little longer ; the figure stout, uniform in 
bulk ; the skin very shining, but densely covered with 
plumes. Segments 2 and 13 are furnished only with 



14 MILTOCHRISTA MINIATA. 

very short simple hairs, but the other segments have 
each six whorls of wonderful plumose verticillate 
hairs, those on segments 3 to 7 being fully one-eighth 
of an inch high, and those on segments 8 to 12 a little 
shorter, while along the sides and just above the feet 
are tufts of plain hairs. When looking at one of them 
in motion, I could not help mentally comparing it to 
an animated hearse with palish plumes. 

The colour of the skin, when it can be seen, is a 
waxy dark drab ; the plumes from the head to segment 
7 are blackish mouse colour, and the rest a paler tint 
of the same. When disturbed the larva bends into a 
circle, placing the two extremities together, with the 
tufts standing out apart. 

The cocoon is a long-oval in shape, very slight but 
close in texture, the silk wonderfully interwoven with 
the cast-off plumes stuck upright, so that whilst fresh 
and uninjured by rain it might at first sight be mis- 
taken for the larva ; one which I watched in progress 
was completely finished, so far as outward appearance 
went, in twenty-four hours. The pupa is short, 
reddish-brown in colour, the cast larva skin adhering 
to the anal segments. (J. H., 5, 9, 68 ; E.M.M. V, 
111.) 



LlTHOSIA 0ANI0LA. 

Plate XL, fig. 4. 

A larva, feeding on olive-green house-top lichens, 
with a taste for clover, was secured for figuring by the 
kindness of Dr. Knaggs, on May 30th, 1862. 

Its head was dark brown, the body tapered a little 
at either extremity, the ground colour brown, a thin 
blackish dorsal line slightly widening in the middle of 
each segment, the subdorsal lines composed of cunei- 
form orange-red marks pointing backwards, and bor- 
dered laterally with similar marks of black, a whitish 
spot almost touching the point of each wedge ; the sides 



LITHOSIA CANIOLA. 15 

rather paler than the back, with a dusky lateral line; 
the tubercles studded with brown hairs. (W. B. ; 
E.M.M. I, 49.) 



LlTHOSIA AUREOLA. 

Plate XL, fig. 5. 

The larva was received on August 19 th, feeding 
upon lichens attached to oak. 

This larva was very active in its habits ; it was not 
yet mature, being but little more than five-eighths of an 
inch in length, rather slender, and of nearly uniform 
thickness, but tapering very little posteriorly. The 
tubercles all tufted. 

The ground colour of the back was white, but this 
appeared only as four white lines separating the black 
dorsal, intermediate and broader subdorsal stripes ; 
and this pattern was interrupted at the fourth, eighth, 
and twelfth segments by dark brownish-black patches 
covering the back, and on the fourth and twelfth 
looking almost like humps from the greater denseness 
of the tufts of hair ; and on the ninth segment the 
dorsal stripes were absent, leaving the whole area as a 
conspicuous whitish spot ; the sides, belly, and legs 
were brownish-grey; the folds between segments 3 
and 4 white; there was a white spot just above the 
legs on the third, and a white blotchy line similarly 
placed on the fourth. The second segment was dark 
brown-, with a reddish margin in front, and a short 
longitudinal streak from it of the same tint on the 
subdorsal region. The dorsal tubercles of all but 
the three dark segments were orange-red, bearing 
brownish-grey hairs, the first of each dorsal pair 
being small in size and the second behind very large, 
so as to project beyond the subdorsal stripe, on which 
they were placed into the side, and behind each tubercle 
of this pair was a white dot; along the sides were 
two rows of similar tubercles, the lowest being just 



16 LITH0STA AUREOLA. 

above the legs, thickly furnished with brownish-grey 
hairs ; a few hairs longer than the rest proceeded 
from the thoracic and anal segments ; the head itself 
blackish-brown . 

This species spins up in the autumn and passes the 
winter in the pupa state. (J. H., 5, 9, 68; E.M.M. 
V, 113.) 



LlTHOSIA HELVOLA. 

Plate XL, fig. 6. 

On the 13th June, 1868, 1 received from Mr. Machin 
four larvae of this species, then not far from full-grown ; 
their food was a large coarse lichen growing on the 
bark of yew trees. In a few days they had spun rather 
loose cocoons, with a few grains of earth attached to 
the silk, on the underside of the pieces of bark. The 
moths appeared July 2nd to 6th. 

When full-grown, the larva is nearly three-quarters 
of an inch in length, moderately stout, with the 
posterior segments tapering slightly towards the tail ; 
all the tubercles furnished with tufts of hair. 

The ground colour of the back varies — being pale 
grey, whitish- grey, or white, and the colour of the 
sides and belly is grey, brownish-grey, or greenish- 
grey ; there is a subdorsal stripe of black, separating 
the white back from the grey sides, and itself inter- 
rupted by one of the hinder pair of tubercles on the 
back of each segment ; down the centre of the back run 
two black lines, which represent the dorsal stripe, 
appearing united at the hinder end of all the segments, 
as well as on the front of all, except the last four, and 
interrupted through the middle of the others ; and 
and between these lines and the subdorsal stripe comes 
another fine black line on the hinder half of each seg- 
ment. On the fourth segment the space between the 
dorsal lines is filled up with black, forming a con- 
spicuous lozenge-shaped mark ; on the eighth segment 



L1TH0SIA HELVOLA. 17 

is another black mark, but triangular in outline; and 
on the ninth segment the subdorsal black stripe is 
interrupted by a white spot, which extends somewhat 
into the grey colour of the side, and along the side 
run two dark brownish interrupted lines ; the head is 
dark brownish-grey, lobed and freckled with black ; 
the tubercles are grey or brownish-grey, and the tufts 
of hair growing from them are of the same tint. (J. 
H., 5,9, 68; E.M.M. V, 112.) 



LlTHOSIA STRAMINEOLA. 

Plate XLI, fig. 1. 

This insect, as previously recorded in the ' Zoologist,' 
M. Guenee has pronounced to be a variety of L. griseola 
after comparing the figure of the larva with preserved 
skins of griseola in his possession. The larva was 
depicted June 24th, and the imago appeared July 30th. 

The larva was brown, the head of a darker brown, 
the back of the second, third, and anal segments 
orange-red, as though the subdorsal marks had become 
confluent ; a similar red mark, of an irregular trape- 
zoidal figure, formed the subdorsal line on the anterior 
two-thirds of each segment, a thin blackish line border- 
ing them externally, a thin dark brown dorsal line, 
interrupted on the second and third, and terminating 
on the twelfth segment, tubercles and hairs brown. 
(W. B.; E.M.M. 1,49.) 

From eggs of L. stramineola kindly sent to me in 
August last by Mr. C. G. Barrett, I have lately suc- 
ceeded in rearing four perfect insects, one male and 
three females. Two of the females were yellow all over, 
one of them having its wing somewhat clouded with 
grey ; and the male was grey all over, in fact, a true 
griseola. 

The correctness, therefore, of M. GrueneVs opinion 
as to the identity of these two forms is completely 
established, and stramineola must take the position 

VOL. III. 2 



18 LITHOSIA STKAMINEOLA. 

which he assigns to it, of being a variety of griseola. 
(J. H., 14, 7, 73 ; E.M.M. X, 69.) 

Two larvse which had been reared from eggs, were 
received from the Rev. J. Hellins, April 29th, 1873, 
feeding on lichens ; the smaller of the two sickening 
for its final moult. This larva was three-quarters of 
an inch long, rather stout in proportion ; the ground 
colour dark slaty pinkish-grey, very faintly marked 
along the sides with paler ; the subdorsal marks of 
orange-ochreous were in front of each segment some- 
what of a triangular form, with the angles rounded off, 
pointing forwards ; from these a thin faint streak of 
greyish -ochreous ran backwards to the end of the 
segment, but scarcely to be noticed till beyond the 
second tubercle, both tubercles interrupting it, the 
second much the largest; the dorsal stripe broad, 
faintly darker than the ground, which was itself blackish, 
but it was dull black at the beginning, and there was a 
black blotch on the side immediately in contact with 
the orange-ochreous mark, so that these marks looked 
as if on a short transverse black velvety band ; on the 
back of the third segment was a conspicuous patch of 
orange-ochreous, another on the front division of the 
thirteenth segment ; the former partly divided by a 
central black line, a little in front and more behind, 
where it bore a small blackish-brown hairy tubercle, 
on each side and more in front it was bounded by a 
large dark tubercle, which gave a lichen -like character 
to the form and colour of this patch. The same idea 
was suggested by the hind patch of this ochreous colour, 
which was only partly divided by a black central line ; 
along the side there was an irregular stripe of a greyish 
flesh-colour, interrupted by the row of sub-spiracular 
tubercles, which was the middle of three rows along the 
side, the lowest row being almost on the upper part of 
the prolegs, and almost on the belly on the other 
segments. The head black and brilliantly polished, 
all the rest dull, either of a waxen or velvety appear- 
ance ; all the ventral prolegs well developed, paler than 



LITHOSTA STRAMINEOLA. 19 

the rest of the skin, and shining semi-transparent ; the 
anterior legs similar in colour and texture. The colour 
of the hairs of a whity-brown, mixed with black. 

On the 4th of May the moult of this larva was com- 
plete, and on the 5th it had eaten up the cast skin 
entirely, hairs and all ; the following day it was feeding 
freely on Lichen caninus. The imago appeared June 
21st, 1873. (W. B., Note Book II, 7.) 



LlTHOSIA COMPLANA. 

Plate XLI, fig. 2. 

I have also been indebted to Mr. Doubleday for a 
specimen of this larva, which throve well on lichens 
off fir-trees, and was nearly full-fed June 9th, 1862 ; 
the perfect insect appeared at the end of July. The 
colour of this larva was brown, with a very dark brown 
head and dorsal line. The subdorsal markings consisted 
of oblong, somewhat reniform, dull orange-red marks, 
one on the anterior half of each segment, followed by 
an interval of the ground colour, and succeeded by a 
whitish spot; the usual tubercles and hairs dark 
brown. (W. B. ; E.M.M. I, 49.) 

The larva of this species has long been known, 
and descriptions of it have been published by many 
entomologists ; our object, therefore, in introducing 
any remarks upon it in this paper, is not so much to 
describe it over again, as to say something about it 
with reference to the larva of L. molybdeola. 

Under the latter species will be found an account of 
two larvse reared from the egg in 1867-68, of which 
very careful figures were also taken, with the view of 
using them for comparison when the larva of complana 
could be procured. And in this way they have been 
used both this last summer and the summer before, 
and the following particulars have been noted. 

In several points there exists between the larvae of 



20 LITHOSIA (JOMPLANA. 

complana and molybdeola the similarity which is also 
shown by their imagos ; complana is rather the larger 
of the two, but there is in both the same figure, the 
same arrangement of tubercles, the same sort of hairs 
in the tufts ; in their colouring there is the same ground 
of dead blackish-grey, the brown tubercles and hairs, 
the velvety-black dorsal and lateral stripes, and the 
subdorsal row of parti-coloured orange-red and white 
spots. 

Now, in the descriptions of complana we find these 
spots called oval ; u taches o vales " Guenee calls them ;* 
"taches arrondies ou un peu ovalaires," f says 
Boisduval; and, as far as we can gather from our 
friends who are accustomed to take the larva of com- 
plana in this country, they do not know of any other 
shape for these spots but oval or roundish ; in the two 
larvae of molybdeola mentioned above, these subdorsal 
spots had no roundness whatever in their shape, but 
were narrowish, oblong, somewhat wedge-shaped marks. 

Boisduval, in his account of complana, goes on to 
say, " Elle varie un peu pour la couleur et pour la 
forme des taches orangees ; quelquefois celles-ci sont 
blanches sur tous leurs bords avec le centre orange ; 
d'autresfois il n'y a que la partie posterieure de chaque 
qui soit orangee. Souvent elles sont alongees ou un 
peu triangulaires, et semblent presque former, lorsque 
la chenille est enrepos, deux raies non interrompues ; " 
so that we must either give up the shape of these sub- 
dorsal spots as a point of difference, or else suppose 
that Boisduval had seen larvae of molybdeola as well 
as of complana. In coming lower down the side, below 
the black lateral stripe, which comes next to the sub- 
dorsal spots, we reach another point ; and here Bois- 
duval fails us, for he says nothing of the side of com- 
plana, only that " les stigmates sont peu apparents," 
and "le dessous du corps est grisatre," and then he 
gives the colour of the legs. Guenee is much more 

* ' Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France,' 1861, p. 50. 
f ' Collection Iconographie et Historique des Chenilles.' 



L1TH0SIA COMPLANA, 21 

precise, "La region laterale est plus pale'' (than the 
ground colour), " avec des lineaments noirs, marques, 
a la place de la stigmatale, de traits fauves, isoles, tres 
fins ; " and other descriptions also speak of a reddish- 
yellow line running just above the feet. Now, the 
description of molybdeola (before referred to) does not 
help us much here, for it omits some particulars, the 
importance of which was not then seen ; but the 
figures show most distinctly that, while in complana 
the spiracular region is occupied by one broader rust- 
coloured line, in molybdeola there is first a fine line of 
pale grey, then a line of the ground colour, and then a 
narrower line of the rust colour ; and unless the 
inspection of a larger number of larvae of molybdeola 
can prove that this arrangement of lines is not 
permanent, we have in it a good distinctive character ; 
and perhaps anyone who could place the living larvae 
side by side for comparison, would on a careful exami- 
nation, find others equally good. (W. B. and J. H., 
9, 12, 71; E.M.M. VIII, 174.) 



LlTHOSIA COMPLANULA. 

Plate XLI, fig. 3. 

Said to feed on lichens, though I have not found 
this the case with the few I have reared ; the first I 
had fed on oak ; others were taken on buckthorn and 
dogwood, and this season one on Clematis. 

The larva is of nearly uniform thickness ; its colour 
above is a very dark bluish-grey ; the head, plate on 
the second segment, broad dorsal line and subdorsal 
lines black ; the body furnished with black tubercles 
and hairs, excepting an orange, lateral stripe beginning 
at the fifth and ending on the twelfth segments, which 
encloses the spiracles and extends to the prolegs ; the 
tubercles and hairs on the latter being also orange 
colour. (W. B. ; E.M.M. I, 49.) 



22 LITHOSIA COMPLANULA. 

T will only remark that the larva of this species 
assumes its lateral reddish-orange stripe at its first 
or second moult, when but little over a line in length ; 
also that it seems to feed and grow more slowly than 
the other species. (J. H., 5, 9, 68 ; E.M.M. V, 111.) 



LlTHOSIA MOLYBDEOLA. 

Plate XLI, fig. 4. 

Mr. Doubleday most kindly transmitted to me some 
eggs he had received of this species, and by the time 
the parcel reached me (July 26th, 1867) the young 
larva3 had appeared. Most of the brood must have 
soon perished, but the three which lived till September 
were then about half an inch long, and the two final 
survivors spun up before the end of May, and appeared 
as moths on July 3rd and 4th, 1868. 

I could never see that they ate any food I gave them 
freely, but at different times I saw that they had eaten 
a little of various lichens from trees or banks, wall 
moss, withered sallow and oak leaves, slices of turnip 
and carrot, knot-grass, and they must have thriven as 
well as they would have if they had been at large, for 
the two bred moths were not at all smaller than 
captured specimens. 

I noticed, not in this species only, but in all the 
Lithosidce larvse I had, that the characteristic markings 
and tints were assumed very early — long before they 
had attained a quarter of their growth. When full- 
grown this larva is rather more than three-quarters of 
an inch in length, moderately stout, uniform in bulk ; 
head very hard and shining ; all the tubercles crowned 
with tufts of short hairs, mixed with a few longer 
ones ; of the dorsal tubercles the front pair are small, 
and the hinder pair very large. 

The ground colour, when seen between the tufts of 
hair, is a dead blackish-grey ; but the segmental folds 



LITHOSIA MOLYBDEOLA. 23 

are black ; there is a rich velvety, very black, dorsal 
stripe ; the subdorsal line, being broken on each 
segment by the hinder tubercle with its tuft of hair, 
must be rather called a row of elongated, parti- 
coloured spots, each beginning on the hinder part of 
a segment, and continued across the fold into the 
next segment, until stopped by the tubercle ; the 
colours being white for about half the spot, and the 
tint of a robin's red breast for the remainder, but 
owing to the position of the white portion so near the 
segmental fold, only the red hinder part of the spot is 
to be seen except when the larva is stretched out in 
walking. On segments 2 to 4 these spots are alto- 
gether whitish. Immediately below comes another 
velvety black stripe, broadest at the centre of the 
body, and tapering considerably towards the head, but 
less so towards the tail ; just above the feet comes a 
greyish-ochreous interrupted stripe, edged on both 
sides with a dark brown line ; the tubercles and short 
hairs are brown, the longer ones black. 

The pupa stout, reddish-brown in colour; enclosed 
in a very slight web of silk, under cover of a stone or 
piece of moss. (J. H., 5, 9, 68; E.M.M. V, 109.) 



LlTHOSIA GRISEOLA. 

Plate XLI, fig. 5. 

Mr. Doubleday kindly sent me eggs on the 11th 
August, 1867, from which the larva? hatched on the 
15th of August. By the end of November the larva? 
were nearly half an inch in length and were full-grown 
during May. The moths appeared from June 14th to 
27th, 1868. 

The larvae fed at first on withered leaves, especially 
delighting to riddle decaying sallow leaves full of holes ; 
but I saw them also eat a little clover, knot-grass, and 
various lichens and mosses* Early in the spring they 



24 LITHOSIA GRISEOLA. 

attacked vigorously some slices of turnip, but after- 
wards, on attaining some size, they fed away steadily 
on Lichen caninus, which I have since learnt had been 
noticed to occur where the moth is most abundant, 
and no doubt forms part of the natural food of the 
larva. When full grown the length is quite an inch, 
the figure stout and uniform ; the head small ; all the 
tubercles tufted with stiff hairs, which are short on 
the back and longer on the sides, with a few of extra 
length on the second and thirteenth segments. 

The colour is a rich velvety blackish tint above, 
dingy blackish-brown below ; the central portion of 
the back can, however, be distinguished as a stripe of 
more intense black than the rest ; there is a subdorsal 
orange-ochreous stripe, which being interrupted by 
the tubercles appears on segments 4 to 12 as a row of 
wedge-shaped marks ; but on the second segment 
there is no interruption, and on the third the whole 
dorsal area is occupied by a large orange patch, 
bisected for a part of its length by the deep black 
dorsal line ; and on the thirteenth the subdorsal 
wedges are replaced by two large squarish marks ; 
the hairs are dark brown ; the head a most brilliant 
black. 

Some of the larvse had the orange marks very faint 
indeed, and two of them had no orange marks at all 
except on segments 2, 3, and 13, thus presenting a 
good variety. 

The pupa short, stout, reddish-brown in colour, the 
anal segments still enveloped in the cast larva skin (I 
notice this to be the case with the other species also), 
enclosed in a thin web, in which bits of moss and 
lichen were sometimes interwoven, and placed under 
any protecting cover, such as a stone. 

The moths I bred were very fine, much larger than 
any I ever captured, and although varying somewhat 
among themselves in the depth of their grey tints, yet 
none of them were at all like stramineola. (J. H., 5, 
9, 68; E.M.M. V, 110.) 



LITHOSIA PYGM^EOLA. 25 

LlTHOSIA PYGM^OLA. 

Plate XLI, fig. 6. 

On the 7th of June, 1862, Mr. Doubleday kindly 
sent me the larva of this species. 

It was said to feed on lichens growing amongst 
moss, but lived only a few days, as I could not find 
any such lichen as the small portion of food which 
accompanied it, and which had a very pungent saline 
odour; it refused all other kinds of lichen and so 
starved. 

It was short and rather thick, tapering a little 
posteriorly ; brown on the back, with a thick black 
dorsal line ; the subdorsal lines dark brown, and the 
sides rather paler brown, with a dirty-white line along 
the spiracles ; the tubercles with short brown hairs, 
and the head black. (W. B. ; B.M.M. I, 48.) 

On the 10th of August, 1878, I received from Mr. 
W. H. Tugwell a good number of eggs of this species 
and a supply of the two species of lichen, on which 
the larvae are known to feed. The eggs were all laid 
loose. 

The shape of the egg is globular seen from above, 
but having a considerable depression beneath, appa- 
rently of a smooth surface, but really pitted so very 
minutely that even with a strong lens this character 
is scarcely appreciable. The colour is a very pale 
salmon or flesh-colour and very glossy. Without under- 
going any further change they began to hatch on the 
evening of August 15th, and by the next morning 
about twenty were hatched ; these and the remaining 
eggs were then placed on two pots of lichens. 

The newly-hatched larva is very much the colour of 
the egg ; it is rather stout, the head broad and large, 
brown on the crown, whitish in front above the 
mouth, which is brown ; there are faint internal sub- 
dorsal lines of a brownish flesh-colour, extending as 
far behind as the tenth segment on which they are 



26 LITHOSIA PYGMJIOLA. 

most distinct, and there unite across the back ; a 
faintly darkish tinge of the same colour runs along 
the back from the head; the three hinder segments 
are almost colourless ; the body is clothed with long 
whitish hairs. 

When eight days old they had become of a light 
greenish-drab colour and seemed of a wandering dis- 
position, as I found several on the outside of the pots. 

After hybernation the larvse were nowhere to be 
seen. 

Another batch of eggs was received from Mr. Tug- 
well on the 21st August, 1879, just similar to the 
above ; on the 30th they became more transparent and 
showed the embryo rather plainly through the shell as 
a dark grey spot. (W. B., Note Book III, 250.) 



LlTHOSIA MUSCERDA. 

Plate XLI, fig. 7. 

Eggs were received from Mr. Barrett on July 30th, 
1870, and larvae hatched on August 3rd. To these 
the same treatment and food was given as had already 
been tried with the larvse of Nudaria senex (see p. 37). 
They hybernated small, when about one-fifth of an 
inch long ; three were seen alive and feeding in 
February, 1871, these moulted at the end of March ; 
two were then accidentally lost ; the survivor moulted 
for the last time on May 6th, and was full-fed about 
the end of that month ; it spun a cocoon, but had not 
strength to become a pupa. 

Probably the right food for this larva is some sort 
of lichen growing on the sallow bushes in the soaking 
wet parts of the fens, where the moth occurs ; Mr. 
Barrett noticed that it affects these bushes far more 
than any other kind of growth in the fens, and he 
observed that it is on the wing from early dusk till 
darkness sets in, when it disappears until midnight, 



LITHOSIA MUSCERDA. 27 

after which hour it has another short flight; and 
probably there is a third flight in the morning dusk. 

The egg was noted as small and shining. The 
young larva is of a dirty whitish colour, with black 
head, the tubercles furnished with single, stiff, dark 
hairs. When the larva is about one-fifth of an inch 
long the tubercles are shining black, and furnished 
with tufts of short hairs, the head shining black, the 
general colour of the body and hairs dull black, dorsal 
line and segmental folds velvety-black, a pair of dull 
orange spots on the second segment. This appearance 
continued up to the last moult ; after that had taken 
place for an hour or two the colouring was very 
striking; the head was shining white, and while the 
tufts on the first segment and down the centre of the 
back were darkish brown, all the others were bright, 
light reddish-brown; but this gay dress was sobered 
down again. 

The length of the full-grown larva is about three 
quarters of an inch, the figure rather stout, cylindrical, 
tapering only at the second segment and head, and 
again at the thirteenth; the legs well developed; 
eight tubercles on each segment raised and tufted, the 
front dorsal pair being only moderately large, but the 
hind pair much enlarged and transversely oval in 
shape ; on segments 3 and 4 the front pair are larger 
than the hinder pair; all these tubercles thickly set 
with very short hairs. The general colouring is rusty 
black, the ground colour of the body being velvety 
blackish-brown, marbled with reddish-grey, the dorsal 
stripe and subdorsal line deep velvety-black ; on each 
side of the dorsal line on the second segment, and 
again on the front of the thirteenth, is a squarish, 
dull, deep red spot ; head shining black ; tubercles and 
hairs all deep brown ; each front pair of tubercles set 
in reddish-grey rings. There is a fine reddish-grey, 
interrupted subspiracular line ; the belly pinkish-grey ; 
all the legs shining, dark reddish-grey ; tips of prolegs 
pellucid. 



28 LITHOSIA MUSCNRDA. 

The larva retired into a curled-up bramble leaf, and 
there formed a thin, webby cocoon of greyish silk, 
outside which was a finer and thinner web of white 
silk. (W. B. and J. H., 9, 12, 71 ; E.M.M. VIII, 
173.) 

A larva received from the Rev. J. Hellins in 1871 
(date not given) was three-quarters of an inch long, 
cylindrical, of tolerably uniform bulk, only the second 
and thirteenth segments tapering; the head smaller 
than the second segment ; the legs and prolegs well 
developed. 

The warty tubercles in high relief in pairs, on each 
segment down the back; the first pair moderately 
small, the second pair very large and swollen, trans- 
versely oval ; two rows of tubercles along the sides, 
i. e. one in each row on each segment ; across the 
third and fourth segments the tubercles on the back 
in pairs, the largest in front, and the smallest partly 
behind it in an oblique direction. 

The head is of a brilliant shining black ; the body 
a velvety blackish-brown, the dorsal and subdorsal 
stripes deep black; the ground colour between them 
is marbled with reddish-grey, and there is a fine, in- 
terrupted, reddish-grey, subspiracular line ; the tuber- 
cles are deep brown, thickly beset with radiating 
hairs of the same colour; the front pairs of small 
tubercles are set in rings of reddish-grey. On the 
second segment on each side of the dorsal stripe and 
on the anterior portion of the thirteenth segment on 
each side of the dorsal line, there is a squarish deep 
dull red spot. The belly pinkish-grey. The legs and 
prolegs dark reddish-grey and shining, the tips of the 
latter pellucid. 

This larva died after spinning its web, but another 
in 1874 produced the moth June 24th. (W. B., Note 
Book I, 78.) 



CENISTIS QUADRA. 29 

(Enistis QUADRA. 
Plate XLII, fig. 1. 

On the 30th of July, 1872, Mr. W. H. Harwood 
kindly sent me eggs of this species, laid close together 
on the side of a chip box ; and he supplemented his 
gift by a few more, which came from a correspondent 
of his on the 8th of August, laid in clusters ; in both 
instances some of the larvae were hatched in transit, 
and all of them were out by the 13th. 

The egg is hemispherical, most minutely pitted on its 
surface ; of a rather glaucous bright green colour, 
turning olive, and again dark brown just before hatch- 
ing ; a large hole is eaten by the escaping larva in the 
upper part of the shell, which looks quite white when 
empty. 

The young larva for a day or two is rather gelatinous 
looking, of a dirty whitish tint, but soon acquiring an 
internal pinkish tinge, showing a brown streak within 
the thoracic segments, the head being dark brown, and 
the body bearing some rather long, dirty whitish hairs. 
In about ten days the first moult takes place, when, as 
is the case with other species of Lithosice, so much of 
the characteristic marking and colouring of the mature 
larva is assumed, as suffices, even then, to distinguish 
it from its congeners ; the whole larva now becomes 
tougher in texture, and the back becomes yellowish, 
prettily outlined with black, and with an interrupting 
spot on the eighth segment. 

Unfortunately, I cannot give an account of the 
appearance during hibernation; both the young larvae 
referred to above, and those also which on two other 
occasions I received from other friends, having died 
whilst no more than a quarter of an inch in length. 
However, I think that the smallest of the three I am 
now about to describe had, when first sent to me, 
scarcely increased in bulk since hibernation. 

Mr. Harwood, still most kindly mindful to help me 



30 (ENISTIS QUADRA. 

with this species, sent me three young larvae of varying 
size, which he had beaten from oak trees near Col- 
chester, and at St. Osyth, on the 10th, 16th, and 17th 
of June, 1873. 

These were kept separate, and their progress was as 
follows: — No. 1, June 11th; length three-quarters of 
an inch, moulted 19th, increased to one and three- 
eighths of an inch, spun up July 1st ; imago 21st, a 
male. No. 2, June 18th; length five-eighths of an 
inch, moulted 21st, increased to three-quarters of an 
inch, moulted 30th, increased to one and three-eighths 
of an inch, spun up July 12th ; imago August 2nd, 
a male. No. 3, June 18th; length half an inch, 
increased to five-eighths of an inch, moulted 24th, in- 
creased to three-quarters of an inch, moulted July 3rd, 
increased to nearly one inch, moulted July 14th, 
increased to one and a half inches or a little more, 
spun up 27th ; imago August 14th, a female. 

Each of these larvae, on arrival, possessed all the 
characters and colours that distinguished them through 
their changes of skin to the adult state presently to be 
described. The food supplied to them consisted of 
various lichens from oak trees, and at first a few leaves 
also, as I noticed the oak leaves that were sent to me 
with each larva had been nibbled a little on the 
journey ; I also gave them Lichen caninus, for which 
they soon showed such a decided preference that it 
became almost their only nourishment; when disturbed, 
they were very lively and active, running quickly over 
any surface, yet clinging with a firm foot-hold when 
they chose. Altogether, a great quantity of food was 
devoured by them, and at times they seemed to eat 
quite voraciously, always on the dark cuticle of the 
lichen, not seeming to care for the pale fleshy sub- 
stance beneath. 

When about to moult, the colours became less vivid, 
and the details less distinct ; at such times the larva 
would leave its food for the leno cover of its cage, and 
there spin a patch of silk, and fix itself upon it ; then 



(ENISTIS QUADRA. 31 

there seemed to ensue some operation of denuding 
itself of most of its hairs ; but this process I was in 
every instance unable to witness, it being always 
effected during the night, generally the first night after 
the larva had taken its position on the silk ; most of 
the hairs left remaining were on the second and third 
segments ; nearly all the others appeared to have been 
bitten off close to the skin, excepting some few mere 
stumps of various lengths left along the sides. The 
actual moult would take place either on the first, 
second, or third night after this loss of hair, the mini- 
mum time with the smallest, the maximum with the 
largest larva ; after moulting, the first meal was evi- 
dently made on the cast skin, as no trace of it could 
be found beyond the head piece, except in one instance, 
when a small fragment of skin remained. This break- 
fast on its old skin by a hairy larva was to me very 
surprising ; it seemed, however, to act beneficially, for 
the next meal on lichen would be a hearty one. 

I found that after each larva had attained its greatest 
length, it began gradually to shorten for three or four 
days before spinning its cocoon, although still occa- 
sionally feeding, sometimes even ravenously, during 
this period. 

The full grown larva, as I have said, varied from 
one and three-eighths of an inch to nearly one and 
five-eighths of an inch in length ; was moderately 
stout in proportion, somewhat cylindrical in figure, 
tapered a little from the fourth segment to the head, 
also from the eleventh to the anal extremity ; the 
thoracic segments deeply wrinkled, the others plump 
and separated by well-defined divisions ; the ventral 
prolegs long and well-developed, the anal prolegs long 
and extended behind beyond the end of the body ; each 
segment with five prominent wart-like tubercles on 
either side, forming through the length of the body as 
many longitudinal rows ; the two upper rows nearly 
close together along the subdorsal region, the others 
at equal distances along the sides, the lowest almost 



32 (ENISTIS QUADRA. 

on the belly, all of them thickly furnished with long 
radiating hairs curved a little upwards at their tips. 

The head is black and lustrous, the ground colour 
of the back a bright primrose yellow, which appears 
but little on the second segment, being there merely an 
edging and fine dorsal division to a blackish-grey mark ; 
this yellow is a little more seen on the third and fourth 
segments, where the large pairs of tubercles in front 
are black, the smaller ones behind them bright orange, 
the space between these on the fourth segment trans- 
versely barred with black, which more or less tinges 
the dorsal stripe, and produces a conspicuous central 
triangular or cruciform black spot ; the complex broad 
dorsal marking widens a little (diamond-like) on the 
middle of each following segment, and is composed of 
a fine broken grey outline, followed within by a line- 
like interval of the yellow ground, and then with 
freckles of bluish-grey edged with darker grey, and 
having a middle delicate thread-like interval of the 
yellow; near the subdorsal region, run double fine 
broken lines of grey freckles, which on the front of 
the fourth segment are absent, but only interrupted 
on each of the other segments as they approach the 
bright orange tubercles placed in twos, i. e. a very 
small roundish one in front, and a large one trans- 
versely oval just behind it.* Besides the thoracic black 
tubercles mentioned, others occur on the eighth, 
twelfth, and thirteenth segments, as follows : — The 
small front tubercles on the eighth are black, and just 
there the dorsal region is also more or less black, 
together forming a conspicuous trilobed spot ; on the 
twelfth is a greater suffusion of the black, in which 
both large and small tubercles are dyed ; the tubercles 
on the front of the thirteenth segment are also black, 
the anal flap is dark brownish-grey, blotched with 
blackish and sparingly freckled with yellow ; the 
yellow ground of the back is very effectively relieved 

* In the females these tubercles are deep orange-red, and the dorsal 
markings more decidedly of a diamond shape on each segment. — W. B. 



(ENISTIS QUADRA. 33 

by the broad subdorsal velvety-black stripe, on which 
the larger orange tubercles encroach. It has a very 
broken thread of yellow dots along the middle, and is 
margined below with a fine line of yellow, with another 
more interrupted beneath it ; thence the ground colours 
of the side are dark reddish-grey, paler yellowish-grey 
nearer to the spiracular region, and darker brownish- 
grey below, including the semi-transparent ventral and 
anal prolegs with their brown hooks. The spiracular 
region is edged above and below at the segmental 
divisions with pale yellow ; all the lateral tubercles are 
longitudinally oval and dark brownish- grey, each of 
the uppermost ones placed on a blackish crescentic 
blotch delicately edged with pale yellow; the belly 
dark greenish-grey, with a yellowish interrupted stripe 
on each side close to the prolegs ; the hairs which hide 
the spiracles are chiefly grey, or slightly mixed with a 
few black ones on the sides, but those proceeding from 
the few dorsal black tubercles are blackish, and all are 
glossy. In one larva the lowest hairs along the sides 
were whity-brown, the next row above grey, and the 
upper rows darker grey mixed with black. 

The pupal change, in one instance, occurred on the 
fourth day after the commencement of the cocoon, 
which was spun against the side of its cage, and in 
junction with the leno cover of it, and was formed of 
a large gossamer web of a roundish figure, about two 
by one and a half inches, of a darkish grey colour, and 
having the larval hairs interwoven ; inside this outer 
web was a hammock of a finer-textured silk, held in 
suspension by fine threads at intervals in connection 
with the outer fabric. The pupa within the hammock 
lay belly upwards, and was eight lines in length, two 
and a half lines broad, almost uniform in size through- 
out, the head rounded, and only the last two segments 
tapered to the blunt and rounded tip ; the surface 
smooth, quite black, and highly polished ; the old 
larval skin lying detached behind it. (W. B., 7, 2, 74; 
E.M.M. X, 217.) 

VOL. III. 3 



34 GNOPHRIA RUBRICOLLIS. 

Gnophria RUBRICOLLIS. 
Plate XLII, fig. 2. 

A tolerably abundant larva in beech woods during 
September and October, feeding on the tree lichens. 
I also found it once swarming on a lichen-covered park 
paling, and reared a large number of the perfect insects, 
which appeared during the month of May. 

The larva is rather elongate, tapering posteriorly ; 
head blackish, body greyish and freckled with yellow, 
a fine thread of whitish, bordered with grey, forms the 
dorsal line, which is white on the second segment, the 
subdorsal is a black line on the second, third, and fourth 
segments, and on the remainder becomes an elongated 
black trapezoidal mark on the anterior two-thirds of 
each, and terminates on the twelfth. The ground 
colour of the back on each side of the dorsal line of 
the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth segments is 
whitish ; the sides mottled with greenish-yellow and 
grey ; tubercles hairy. (W. B. ; E.M.M. I, 49.) 

Cybosia mesomella. 

Plate XLII, fig. 3. 

On two or three previous occasions, I kept a larva 
or two alive from summer till after Christmas, having 
fed them on sallow leaves, green or decaying ; and last 
spring I managed to retain one even until the new 
sallow leaves were out again, but it would not resume 
feeding after hibernation, and so died; it was then quite 
half an inch in length; in colour a velvety-black all 
over, and covered on every segment, save the head and 
second, with tufts of singular spatulate dark grey 
hairs. I should much like to procure some sort 
of food on which this species would feed up, for they 
would never take to any sort of lichen I gave them. 
(J. H., 5, 9, 68 ; E. M. M. V, 111.) 



CYB0SIA MESOMELLA. 35 

On May 5th and 25th, 1871, larvae were received 
from Mr. Harwood, which had been found on the 
trunks of oak trees, feeding on a pale lichen growing 
intermixed with moss, but not sufficiently developed in 
its growth to enable us to make sure of its name. 
These larvse soon spun up, and the moths, extremely 
fine examples, were bred on June 9th and 18th. 

The full-grown larva is nearly an inch long, figure 
moderately stout, and tapering only at the head and 
second segment, and at the thirteenth segment. On 
each segment behind the second are eight raised tuber- 
cles densely tufted ; the colour of the body is deep 
velvety slaty-blackish ; the head shining black ; a deep 
velvety-black patch on the second segment; the ante- 
rior legs shining black, the ventral prolegs pellucid, 
pale greyish, tipped with black ; the second segment 
bears only simple black hairs, and similar hairs are 
found along the sides of the other segments just above 
the legs ; but the tufts on their upper parts are com- 
posed of black hairs so densely feathered that they 
catch the light and receive quite a greyish effect from 
their peculiar softness, and almost entirely hide the 
skin beneath. In this peculiar featheriness of the larval 
clothing, this species comes so close to Miltochrista 
mdniata, that it might well stand in the same genus 
with it ; and it seems no improvement on the arrange- 
ment of Doubleday's List, in which they do actually 
stand close together, though in different genera, to 
separate them, as Staudinger has done, by the insertion 
of irrorella and others between them. 

The stout pale brown pupa is enclosed in a com- 
paratively large cocoon, formed of semi-transparent, 
thin, greyish silk web, spun in any convenient hollow 
under the moss or lichen. (W. B. and J. H., 9, 12, 
71 ; E.M.M. VIII, 172.) 



36 PHILEA IRRORELLA. 

Philea IRRORELLA. 
Plate XLII, fig. 4. 

On July 30th, 1865, some eggs were received from 
Dr. Knaggs, and noted as globular, pearly in texture, 
clear purplish-brown in colour. The larvae hatched 
August 13th, but no note of them was taken, and they 
must soon have perished for want of the proper food 
and treatment. There is no doubt, however, that in 
their natural habitat they must hybernate when small 
and feed up in the early summer. 

On May 24th, 1867, after considerable search, a 
number were found, then approaching full growth, on 
the Sussex coast. The food is a blackish-brown 
lichen, growing on stones above high-water mark, and 
in some cases mixed with a yellow lichen, a fact of 
much interest when the colouring of the larva is con- 
sidered. The larva seems fond of sunshine, moving 
about in it slowly over the stones ; when about to 
moult it protects itself by spinning overhead a number 
of silken threads, under cover of which it remains 
until the moult is completed. 

The moths were bred early in July. 

When the larva is full grown its length is about six- 
eighths of an inch, the figure proportionate, mode- 
rately stout, tapering a little from the fourth segment 
to the head, and again at the thirteenth ; six raised 
tubercles on each segment studded with longish hairs ; 
the ground colour blackish-brown above, and dark 
reddish-grey or purplish-grey on the sides ; belly and 
legs reddish. The dorsal stripe takes the form of a 
series of deep, brilliant yellow, acorn-shaped marks, 
the acorns pointing backwards, and so placed that the 
segmental folds mark the separation between the cup 
and the fruit ; the paler and duller yellow subdorsal 
line much interrupted ; the spiracular stripe of bright 
yellow also much interrupted ; the raised tubercles 
blackish ; the hairs blackish-brown ; the ground on 



PHILEA IRRORELLA. 37 

the back, and the lower part of the sides, minutely 
freckled with yellow ; the inconspicuous spiracles 
dirty white, ringed with black. 

The short, stoutish pupa, placed in a cocoon of thin 
webby silk, spun amongst the stones and debris. 
(W. B. and J. H. 3 9, 12, 71 ; E.M.M. VIII, 171.) 



NlJDARIA MUNDANA. 

Plate XLIII, fig. 1. 

The full-grown larva was received from Dr. White 
on the 31st of May, 1869, it having been captured 
feeding on lichens on an old stone wall. 

Its length three-eighths of an inch, its figure rather 
stout in proportion, uniform in bulk throughout ; the 
legs all well developed ; six raised tubercles on each 
segment bearing long straggling fine hairs ; the 
ground colour of the back bright sulphur-yellow ; the 
dorsal stripe dark greyish-brown ; a blackish dorsal 
spot on the eighth segment ; the subdorsal line black- 
ish-brown, the whole body below this, including the 
legs, of a semi-translucent, pale greyish-brown ; all the 
tubercles and hairs rather dark greyish-brown ; the 
head dark brown. (W. B. and J. H., 9, 12, 71 ; 
E.M.M. VIII, 171.) 



NlJDARIA SENEX. 

Plate XLIII, fig. 2. 

Eggs were received from Mr. Birks on July 18th, 
1870 ; the larva? hatched on the 21st ; they fed on 
decayed sallow and bramble leaves, on the young 
growth of Hypnum sericeum and Weissia cirrata, and 
on Lichen caninus. The larvas hybernated ; the last 
moult took place early in May, 1871, and the larva 
was full-fed about the beginning of June ; the imago 
appeared on the 23rd of June* 



38 NDDARIA SENEX. 

Mr. Birks described the locality in which the moths 
were captured by him as a swamp very rich in plants, 
and he found them either hovering over tufts of low 
herbage and coarse grass, or resting on the blades and 
stems of the grass or reeds. He could see no lichens, 
except on the trunks of the trees growing there, and 
he never noticed the moths haunting these, as we might 
suppose they sometimes would, if they deposited their 
eggs on them. Possibly the food may be some lichen 
growing under the herbage on the damp ground. 

The female while laying her eggs mixes with them 
fluff from a tuft at her tail, which she detaches by 
means of her two hinder feet ; and the way in which 
the fine plumes from this tuft adhere to the eggs 
makes it rather hard to describe them. 

The larvse, when hatched, were placed in a flower- 
pot with growing moss and lichen and straightway 
hid themselves ; nothing more was seen of them till 
the solitary survivor of the whole brood was detected 
feeding early in May. Probably the rest were destroyed, 
while yet tender, by the small slugs and snails that 
infest lichens, and cannot be got rid of except by 
picking the latter to pieces ; small centipedes also hide 
themselves away craftily, and no doubt do mischief. 

The egg is small, globular in shape, but so soft that 
the outline is not at all regular, the shell shining, 
covered with faint irregular reticulations, yellowish in 
colour. 

The young larva is pale grey, with a central olive 
stripe down the back, and with five or six long, pale 
grey hairs from each tubercle. Just before the last 
moult, the whole larva has a waxen, dull, smoky appear- 
ance ; the tubercles raised and studded with tufts, 
formed of short smoky hairs, mixed with a few 
feathered plumes. When full grown the length is 
three-eighths of an inch, the figure very stout in pro- 
portion ; the tufts so dense that the skin cannot be 
well seen, except when the larva curls itself up, and 
then it is seen at the segmental divisions — waxen- 



NUDABIA SENHX. 39 

looking, and of a deep reddish-grey colour ; the head 
shining black, the anterior legs glossy, tipped with 
black, the ventral prolegs translucent, in colour pale 
grey ; the tuft-bearing tubercles are six in number on 
each segment; the tufts on the second segment are com- 
posed of single dark brown hairs, but the other tufts 
are much denser, and formed of two sorts of hairs, the 
more numerous being pale brown stiff hairs, with 
sharp black points, and being sparsely barbed or 
feathered ; the others, fewer in number, are taller, with 
black stems, and densely feathered all round with soft, 
pale brown plumage. 

The cocoon was of an oval form, about four lines in 
length, formed of close-spun silk and attached to the 
cover of the box in which the larva was confined ; the 
hairs of the coat were all woven in, giving the cocoon 
a brown colour and rough texture. 

The pupa skin, examined after the exit of the moth, 
was about one quarter of an inch in length, highly 
polished, of a rich deep brown colour, the segmental 
divisions showing as pale reddish rings. (W. B. and 
J. H., 9, 12, 71; E.M.M. VIII, 171.) 



NOLA STBIGTTLA. 

Plate XLIII, fig. 4. 

I am indebted to the unvarying kindness of Mr. W. 
H. Harwood, of Colchester, for valuable information 
concerning the habits of this pretty species, and for 
opportunities of studying and describing its larva, 
examples of which I received from him on June 15th, 
1869, and on June 8th, 1871. 

These larvge fed on oak, principally on the under 
cuticle of the leaves, and when full-fed, spun up in 
small boat-shaped cocoons of silk, about five-sixteenths 
of an inch in length, assimilating perfectly in colour 
to the surrounding surface of the bark on which they 



40 NOLA STRIGULA. 

were constructed, — a circumstance which rendered 
their detection very difficult. After the escape of the 
moths, which took place some time about the middle 
of July, the cocoons still retained their form and 
appearance. 

For the sake of close examination, one individual 
was kept without bark until too late for its spinning a 
perfect cocoon, and at last it attached itself to the 
underside of a leaf by the tail amongst a few threads, 
and there pupated much after the manner of an 
Ejphyra. 

The full-grown larva is but little more than three- 
eighths of an inch in length ; its body is rather stout 
in proportion, thickest at the third and fourth seg- 
ments, and tapered a little from the seventh to the 
anal extremity ; the head is full and rounded, but of 
less bulk than the second segment ; the body is 
rounded on the back and sides, and rather flattened 
beneath. It has three longitudinal rows of prominent 
wart-like tubercles on each side, i. e. six on each seg- 
ment, bearing fascicles of radiating hairs. It has 
fourteen legs, the first ventral pair situated at the 
eighth segment. 

The colour of the body is pale buff, sometimes 
partaking of a flesh tint ; the dorsal stripe is yellowish 
or whitish flesh colour, very broad, and well-defined 
by a fine border line of brownish-grey ; the subdorsal 
line is brownish -grey, but interrupted at the segmental 
divisions ; all the tubercles are broadly ringed with 
this colour. A conspicuous blackish-grey blotch covers 
the back of the seventh segment and extends from 
one subdorsal line to the other ; there are indications 
of other blotches of the same colour on the tenth and 
eleventh segments, but these are cut in twain by the 
broad, clear, pale dorsal stripe travelling through and 
separating them into a narrow dark mark on each side 
of the back. The sides are flesh-colour, the spiracles 
are entirely hidden from observation by the numerous 
hairs which diverge near them from the tubercles ; 



NOLA STRIGULA. 41 

the ventral surface is pale flesh-colour and naked ; the 
head is blackish-grey, the lobes narrowly margined in 
front with pale flesh-colour. 

The hairs of the tubercles on the anterior segments 
are pale brown mixed with a few of dark grey, and 
some few of them in front of the second segment, and 
especially on the third, are very long ; the tubercles 
on the rest of the body are furnished with hairs of a 
paler yellowish colour ; on the back of the anterior 
part of the anal segment, issuing from each side, are a 
few hairs of extra length, which converge and taper 
on each side to a fine point directed outwards in a 
slightly downward curve, so that these two fine points 
of hair resemble a forked tail. 

The pupa is four lines long, including the cast larva 
skin adhering to its tail ; it is not very stout, of ordi- 
nary shape, though the wing-cases are long in propor- 
tion ; these last are reddish-brown in colour, the other 
parts very dark brown and without much polish. W. 
B., E.M.M. IX, 15. (W. B., 5, 72; E.M.M. IX, 15.) 



NOLA ALBULALIS. 

Plate XLIII, fig. 5. 

Six larvae were sent to me by the Rev. J. Hellins, 
who had them from Mr. Piatt Barrett; they arrived 
on June 20th. They were feeding on the leaves of the 
dewberry (Riibus ccesius), fearless little fellows, caring 
nothing for being tumbled about, so long as they were 
not deprived of the leaf on which they happened to be 
feeding. 

The full-grown larvse were over half an inch in 
length and stout in proportion; when stretched out 
in crawling they attained a length of five-eighths of an 
inch. They had six rows of round proj ecting tubercles, 
the lowest row just above the legs standing on thick 
basal stalks projected more than the others ; each of 



42 NOLA ALBULAL1S. 

these tubercles (six on a segment) bore little fascicles 
of hairs, the central hairs considerably longer than the 
others, that is, generally one or two on each tubercle 
excessively long; each segment was in itself plump 
and well defined, and with one transverse subdividing 
wrinkle very close to the segmental division. 

In colour some were of an almost ivory whiteness, 
some of a pale flesh tint, others, again, of a bright 
pinkish- orange colour ; in all there were twin dorsal 
light greyish lines and velvety black subdorsal marks, 
or blunt wedge-shaped spots in some commencing on 
the seventh segment and ending on the eleventh. 

In one instance the lobes of the shining flesh- 
coloured head were marked with brown, and the plate 
on the second segment was brown, divided dorsally 
with the ground colour, the subdorsal black marks 
commencing faintly and small on segments 4 and 5, 
stronger on 5, and still stronger on 7, as a right-angled 
mark, thick at the angle, which extended across the 
back as far as the dorsal lines, the tubercles on this 
segment only being rose-pink. The right-angled black 
marks were continued, but rather thinner, on segments 
8, 9, 10, and on 11, where they end; they are even 
thicker on the eleventh than on the seventh, thus 
forming nearly a bar of black across the beginning of 
the segment; the legs brown, the ventral prolegs 
tipped with brown, the fascicles of short hairs whitish, 
the longer hairs dark brown. The dorsal pair of 
tubercles on the eighth, ninth, and tenth segments 
finely outlined in part with black. 

This last individual I watched at intervals con- 
structing its curious cocoon, which is made on a dry 
grass stem of the thickness of a duck-quill ; it com- 
menced by gnawing in a line downwards at the longi- 
tudinal fibrous exterior of the stem, loosening it in a 
long thread, then another and another thread, and so 
on in succession until a great number of small threads 
were loosened of the length of nearly an inch, but not 
detached as yet. This gnawing was patiently and 



NOLA ALBULAL1S. 43 

persistently continued round the stem, excepting only 
at that part which was intended to become enclosed. 
On this part the larva at length took up its position, 
and turning its head on one side, began to lay a 
glutinous secretion and detach and fasten upon it a 
short length of the previously loosened fibre, one 
length after another, longitudinally and parallel, and 
so continued to raise on either side of it structures 
much resembling a pair of wings (one on either side), 
concave within and tapered nearly to a point at the 
stem at each of their ends, the larva appearing to 
gam over the surface from which it removed the fibres. 
On the night of June 29th I left it engaged in 
loosening some fibres near three-eighths of an inch 
above the top of the wing-like structures, its body 
behind resting within them ; the next morning the 
larva had wholly retired within the two wings, and 
having drawn their edges together with silk, they 
united formed a somewhat fusiform cocoon much after 
the fashion of that of an Anthrocera. The larva when 
I saw it was engaged in filling up a few interstices at 
the junction with silk, some of the long dark hairs of 
the body beiug interwoven ; but I could for some time 
plainly see through them the head of the larva at 
work, indeed, till 11 a.m., when they were all so 
thickly spun up as to prevent me from further watch- 
ing, and only a slow and gentle intermittent throbbing 
of the cocoon proved that the occupant was still busy 
at work within ; the assimilation to the stem itself in 
colour and texture was remarkable. The length of the 
cocoon was about seven-eighths of an inch ; its upper 
surface rose tapering from the stem rather suddenly 
in a slope to the thickest part at about one- third of 
its length, where the head of the larva was last seen ; 
thence it again tapered and sloped off very gradually at 
the lower end. (W. B., Note Book III, 96.) 



44 NOLA CENTONALIS. 



NOLA CENTONALIS. 

Plate XLIII, fig. 6. 

On August 21st, 1879, I received twelve eggs of 
this species from Mr. Tugwell, who had been staying 
at Deal, where he found the species and saved two 
females for eggs. 

The food- plant of the larva not then known, but 
the principal plants the moths were found on or near 
were dwarf plants of Hippophae rhamnoides, Salix 
argentea, Senecio jacobcea, Pimpinella saxifraga, Lotus 
comiculatus, Thymus serpyllum, and of grasses Arundo 
arenaria (Marram), Agrostis — ?, Air a — ?, Triticum 
— ? , and one or two Juncacece. Once a moth 
was taken by Mr. Tugwell on Freshwater Down, 
where Thymus serpyllum grows very freely. 

The eggs were laid on and adhering to a paper box 
singly and in groups of two or three or four in a 
cluster. In shape the egg is circular, somewhat flat- 
tened in character, and having a depression above. 
It is very strongly ribbed and most minutely reticu- 
lated ; the shell is glistening and of a pale, creamy- 
white colour. Unfortunately these eggs proved in- 
fertile. 

Mr. Tugwell informed me that the fertile eggs 
showed on the fourth or fifth day a central pale grey 
or round spot, which increased in intensity till the 
hatching, and the other parts of the egg became less 
white. 

On September 16th Mr. Tugwell sent me six young 
larvae feeding on Trifolium procumbens and Lotus 
corniculatus ; they were little more than a tenth of an 
inch in length, rather stout in proportion, deep flesh- 
colour, the head shining reddish-brown, marked on 
each lobe with darker brown, a darkish brown plate 
on the second segment ; the body with subdorsal, 



NOLA OENTONALIS. 45 

lateral, and spiracular rows of projecting warty pink 
tubercles, with radiating, longish greyish- brown hairs. 

This larva has only three pairs of ventral prolegs, 
the first pair being absent. 

Trifolium procumbens appears to be their proper 
food, as they like getting on the hop -like seeding heads, 
to which their colour assimilates well. 

On the 22nd and 23rd they moulted, and the next 
day were thicker and of a subdued, velvety, deep red 
colour, the tubercles a glistening blackish-brown, the 
hairs light brown. They now ate away the cuticle of 
the leaves, causing semi-transparent whitish blotches 
on them. 

(From Mr. Tugwell I learnt subsequently that the 
eggs hatched August 27th and 28th, and the larvae 
moulted first on September 5th and 6th ; the second 
moult occurred from the 13th to the 16th, and 
contemporary with my portion of them the third moult 
occurred from the 21st to the 25th.) 

On the 26th the larva3 had again become paler flesh 
colour, but with somewhat of a faint greenish tinge, 
the tubercles dark reddish. I observed one feeding 
on a blossom and another eating the red-brown, hop- 
like envelopes, exposing the ends of the seeds. 

On September 30th one fixed itself as if for the 
fourth moult, and by October 6th all five had moulted, 
and, as on each former moult, the head-piece remained 
attached to the old skin. As this breaks away behind 
the plate, the larva draws its head out from the old 
helmet and then creeps out of its old coat ; the split is 
somewhat in form of the letter I, which opens, and a 
portion lies over on either side, so that the egress of 
the larva is comparatively easy. 

The larvae were now feeding slowly on the flowers 
and leaves of Trifolium minus. They were dingy red, 
with a dorsal line of paler brownish-ochreous faintly 
edged with darker than the ground, the tubercles all 
of a shining blackish-brown, the skin of the body soft 
without gloss ; they were again given T. procumbens, 



46 NOLA CENTONALIS. 

of which they ate well both flowers and leaves, until the 
15th, when, a frost occurring, they became very torpid. 

Their structure was now very well seen, they having 
only three pair of ventral prolegs ; the head blackish- 
brown and shining, a small semilunar plate of the 
same colour and finely divided on the second segment, 
and three rows of dark brown tubercles on each side 
of the body ; the upper or subdorsal row was the 
largest and most prominent, and all were thickly 
studded with radiating brown hairs, a few single, much 
longer, hairs occurring behind and along the sides. 

On October 22rd, as they had not fed for more than 
a week, I placed them out on a potted plant of Lotus 
corniculatus, but next morning, the 24th, about 11 
o'clock, one of two kept back in a bottle for observa- 
tion moulted for the fifth time, whereupon I withdrew 
the sprays on which were the other three from the 
Lotus, and secured them in another bottle to await 
their moult, which occurred during the night, so that 
on the following morning, the 25th, I found that only 
one larva was waiting for this operation, which was 
not accomplished until 10 a.m. on the 27th. Up to 
that date none of the larvae had fed at all since 
moulting, and up to the end of the month they all 
refused to feed, and had begun to hibernate. 

On November 4th I received a full-grown larva of 
the same brood from Mr. Tugwell, who by keeping 
several larvse in a warm room with a fire and gas, 
confined in a wide-mouthed glass bottle containing 
mixed food of Trifolium minus, T. jpratense blossoms, 
and Medicago lujpulina, on all of which they fed (the 
bottle tied over with calico and over the bottle a large 
glass globe (? shade), to prevent the food drying too 
much), had forced them forward to maturity. This 
larva I figured as soon as it arrived. 

Its length was nine-sixteenths of an inch, or nearly 
five- eighths when stretched out fully ; it was stout 
and plump, the segments well divided, and having on 
each side of the body three rows of prominent warty 



NOLA CENTONALIS. 47 

tubercles (i. e. a transverse series of six across each 
segment), the upper row the largest, the middle row 
the smallest, and all emitting fascicles of radiating 
hairs, single hairs of much greater length proceeding 
from the anal tubercles, and one from each tubercle of 
the lowermost row on the sides. The skin itself was 
soft and smooth between these tubercles, which allowed 
but little of it to be seen on the upper parts of the 
body, but the ventral surface showed it to be soft and 
just a trifle glistening ; the body tapered a little 
behind, and rather more from second segment to the 
head. 

It had only three pairs of ventral prolegs. 

The colour of the glossy head was blackish-brown, 
above the mouth a broad streak of dingy pink, papillaB 
paler; the body generally and the tubercles were of 
this same dingy deep pink or dirty purplish pink, 
beautifully relieved by a dorsal line of ochreous yellow, 
which passed through a V mark of velvety-black at 
the beginning of each segment, separating the black 
into two sharp wedges. A fine linear black streak ante- 
riorly ran beneath each upper tubercle, representative 
of the subdorsal line ; the tracheal thread of faint pale 
yellowish ran midway between the middle and lower 
rows of tubercles, and showed more distinctly at each 
part bearing a black spiracle directly on it, so that 
this very faint yellowish line had an interrupted 
appearance towards each segmental division. The 
hairs were lightish greyish-brown, rather shining, and 
from their reflecting the colour of the body and 
of themselves also, and occupying so much space 
about the upper surface of the body, produced 
there somewhat of a general brownish effect. The 
anterior legs dingy pink, marked with darkish 
brown ; the ventral and anal prolegs of the pinkish 
ground colour, but more transparent and fringed 
with hooks. 

After feeding on flowers of common red clover for 
several days it at length spun itself up after very 



48 NOLA CENTONALIS. 

leisurely constructing the case formed of gnawings of 
the bark of the stem in two wing-like halves, and 
then drawing them together, the stem itself being the 
base of the inverted boat-shaped structure. 

As to my small hibernating larvse I found one on 
March 7th, 1880, but it went asleep next day without 
feeding, but a few days later while in a bottle it began 
to feed on young leaves of Trifolium procumbens for a 
couple of days, and then ceased during an interval of 
cold east winds, and remained fixed on the under side 
of a leaf, where on April 1st it had moulted, the old 
skin remaining close beside it. This to my astonish- 
ment made the sixth moult, a circumstance unique 
in my experience ! 

From a communication since received from Mr. 
Tugwell I believe it might be possible that the larvae 
sent to me were not in their second skins as he had 
thought at the time, but really before their second 
moult. 

The larva then fed very sparingly, but on April 
17th, though it had grown very slowly in the interval, 
its colouring was different, and it agreed more closely 
with the forced full-grown larva in having the yellow 
ochreous dorsal line visible ; the general colouring of 
the body was a darker red than before, the tubercles 
were still dark blackish-brown, but the dark brown 
hairs were more conspicuous. 

On the 22nd it fixed itself for another moult (the 
seventh, H. T. S.), which was accomplished on April 
27th at miduight. 

After a few days it began to feed again, and so con- 
tinued at intervals according to the temperature until 
May 13th; the black Vs at the beginning of each 
segment through which the yellow dorsal line ran 
had now become deep pink, and a ring of pale flesh 
colour surrounded the base of every tubercle, all of 
which remained blackish-brown. It now ceased to 
feed, and thinking it might spin up I supplied it with 
a stem, which, proving to be hollow, the larva crept 



KOLA OENTONALlS. 49 

inside, and there remained until the morning of the 
18th, when it was out and feeding on a flower of 
purple clover. On splitting up the stem I found 
therein the cast-off skin (the eighth, H. T. S.). 

On the 23rd it again fixed itself to moult (the ninth, 
H. T. S.), and accomplished the operation by the 
morning of the 27th. The black V's were now dis- 
tinct, the tubercles no longer dark, the yellow ochre 
dorsal line quite bright. It fed well on flowers of 
Trifolium jpratense and reopens until June 3rd, when it 
ceased to feed, and on the 4th took up its position on 
a dry stem placed for it, and began very deliberately 
to construct its case of two side wing-like pieces of 
silk, covering them with portions gnawed off from the 
stem ; these by the evening of the 5th seemed to be 
complete, and by night the larva was joining them 
together from within. By the next morning, June 
6th, the larva was enclosed, and the structure appeared 
complete. (W. B., Note Book III, 296.) 

[Surprise is expressed at this larva moulting the 
sixth time, but no surprise seems to have been caused 
by its moulting three times after the sixth moult ! — 
H. T. S.] 

On October 29th, 1882, Mr. W. E. Jeffrey sent me 
a few eggs laid by a bred female, which had paired in 
captivity. They were laid on a dry stalk by the side 
of a cocoon from which one of the moths had emerged, 
and adhered to the side of a little hollow channel so 
as not readily to be seen. 

The shape of the egg is round and slightly flattened, 
having a central depression on the upper surface. It 
is finely ribbed and reticulated, white when first laid, 
but afterwards became of a more creamy tint, and 
having within the central hollow in the top of the egg 
a ring of brown atoms. 

On November 4th I described a larva of this species, 

then nine-sixteenths of an inch in length stoutish, plump, 

with three rows of prominent tubercular warts, the 

upper or subdorsal row the largest, the next row the 

vol. in. 4 



50 NOLA OENTONALIS. 

smallest, under them are the black spiracles, then 
another row of tubercles ; the head and second seg- 
ment tapering, the head smallest, dark, or blackish- 
brown, very glossy ; colour of the body a kid-leather- 
like skin, a dingy pink, or dingy purplish-pink ; the 
straight dorsal line ochreous-yellow T , with a black 
velvety V-mark at the beginning of each segment 
through which the dorsal ochreous yellow line runs, 
separating each black V into two wedges. A black streak 
or line bounded anteriorly the lower margin of each 
subdorsal tubercle, and another, shorter and less notice- 
able, bounded the subspiracular tubercular. The 
tubercles were so large in proportion, and occupied so 
much space, that but little of the soft skin was seen 
between them, and a general brownish effect was pro- 
duced by the rather brownish hairs which radiate from 
them. As usual in this genus the longer hairs were 
single, issuing from the lower tubercles, and noticeably 
from those of the thirteenth segment. A faint ap- 
pearance of a paler ochreous line along the spiracles 
was most noticeable where the spiracles occur on it, 
so that this faint yellow line had an interrupted 
appearance. (W. B., Note Book IV, 175.) 



Spilosoma lubricepeda. 
Plate XLY, fig. 4. 

On the 3rd of July, 1879, I chanced to find sixty 
eggs laid on the underside of a hawthorn leaf, side by 
side close together in a group ; they were globular and 
apparently smooth-shelled, glossy, and of an opaque 
whitish colour ; by their being of a good size I had the 
wish to prove their identity. 

On the 12th they seemed rather less white and less 
glossy, and on the morning of the 14th they had 
turned to a light grey colour, with a dark grey 
blotch or two and with fine, black, hair-like equa- 



SP1L0S0MA LUfcKICEPEDA. 51 

torial lilies showing through the shells. By 3 p.m. 
the same day fourteen were hatched and most of the 
other shells chipped. 

The newly-hatched larva was very pale, just lightly 
tinged with greenish- drab, and with a shining brown 
head, and with rather long blackish hairs on the body. 
After a moult the larva became rather more tinged 
with warmish yellow-drab, and showed an internal grey- 
ish spot towards the hinder two or three segments. 
After another moult it continued much of the same 
colour. After the third moult it was half an inch long, 
and the back was broadly marked its full width with 
deeper drab, less transparent than the rest of the body, 
and edged on either side with darker drab, and this 
again below with whitish ; there was a dorsal line of 
whitish ; the rest of the body and head as before ; 
tubercular dots whitish, hairs dusky. 

Directly after the fourth moult (August 19th) it was 
five-eighths of an inch long, and stout in proportion ; 
head yellowish-drab and shining, second segment 
similar with the front margin paler ; the rest of the 
body greyish- drab, darker on the back, and broadly 
edged with dark grey drab on either side, and again 
close beneath with greyish -white in a ragged manner 
of long, wedge-shaped marks united, the narrow apex 
of one joining to the broad base at the inner edge of 
the other on the segment before it ; the raised tubercles 
round and warty, bearing fascicles of radiating hairs 
of black and of greyish ; a dorsal line of greyish- white 
or of whitish-greyish-yellowish, was outlined or edged 
with darkish drab ; spiracles whitish. 

After the fifth moult on August 27th, it was in its 
adult dress of dark olive-greyish-brown on the back 
without gloss, and edged with darker brown next the 
cream-white spiracular stripe, the whitish spiracles 
close beneath it ; the belly similar in colour and of 
kid-glove texture as the back, but rather less dark ; 
the wart-like, round tubercles the same, all thickly 
studded with radiating darkish brown glossy hairs. 



52 SPILOSOMA LUBRICEPEDA. 

Thehead was much as before, greyish-yellow and glossy, 
the mouth blackish, and a creamy- whitish streak above 
it ; papillse pale cream colour, ocelli black. 

In many there was no trace of any dorsal line, while 
in some there was a very faint, paler, and interrupted 
line, visible chiefly on some of the hinder segments, 
and in others a cream-coloured line edged softly with 
dark grey was distinct on the third, fourth, fifth, and 
sixth, and less and less visible on the remaining seg- 
ments ; a trace of it there could only be detected by 
aid of a lens. 

On the 8th of September most of them were spun 
up for pupation in cocoons of silk, in which the hairs 
from their bodies were interwoven. (W. B., Note 
Book III, 276.) 



Deiopeia pulchella. 
Plate XL VI, fig. 3. 

On the 18th of June, 1878, 1 received from Mr. W. H. 
Tug well two larvae in their third moult, which he had 
reared thus far on Myosotis palustris with others from 
a batch of eggs sent him from Mentone by Mr. J. 
Sidebotham. The eggs had reached him on the 24th 
May, and hatched the same day. 

The two larvae I received on the 18th of June were 
then respectively of the length of half an inch, and three- 
quarters of an inch, the segments plump and well cut 
at the divisions, the head the smallest. The ground 
colour was brownish-black or very dark brownish-grey, 
appearing black by force of contrast with an ornamental 
white dorsal stripe, which on the smaller larva was 
continuous, but not quite so in the other ; in both 
specimens it was interrupted by a transverse bar of 
lurid red, or dingy ochreous-red, narrow in the larger 
one ; there was a blotch of the same red below on the 
side ; the spiracular region was puckered and marked 



DEI0PEIA PULCHELLA. 53 

with a marbling of white streaks in a linear direction 
along its length, the belly and legs of the same dark 
colour as the ground of the back; the head a lurid 
dark red marked broadly with black on the front of 
each lobe. The tubercular spots were prominent deep 
black warts, each bearing a curved, black, bristly hair, 
those on the sides above the legs and some few above 
on the thoracic segments were rather longer, whitish, 
and finely plumose throughout their length ; the whole 
surface of the body shining. 

Mr. Tugwell describes their first juvenile skin as 
dull orange, having a few bristly hairs, and their 
appearance maggoty and manner sluggish ; their 
second skin as darker greyish, with a transverse band 
of dull orange on each segment from one spiracle 
across the back to the other, the usual tubercular 
warts black in each band and with a bristly hair. He 
observed that they ate the leaves of Myosotis palustris, 
but seemed to prefer the flowers and young seeds. 

My two larvse moulted on the 21st and 24th of 
June. I figured the former on the 25th; they had 
both ceased to show any red markings The largest at 
this date measured seven-eighths of an inch and was 
velvety black, softening into a lighter blackish-blue at 
the segmental divisions, which added to the velvety 
appearance ; the dorsal ivory-white marking formed a 
series of ornamental spots upon each segmental divi- 
sion ; there was a small white speck on either side of 
the front of a segment. Along the spiracular region 
ran a ragged and rather interrupted white line, branch- 
ing a little lichen-like upwards at each segmental 
division, where it melted into the bluish-black; the 
spiracles were black ; the belly black and velvety, the 
ventral and anal prolegs dark brownish-grey. The 
black hairs of the back and the white secondary dorsal 
hairs of the thoracic segments and those all along the 
sides were long, pointed, and barbed or plumose as 
before ; the head was reddish, marked with black on 
the crown of each lobe, the triangular space between 



54 DEIOPEIA PULOHELLA. 

them finely outlined with white ; the anterior legs 
black and shining. 

The full-fed larva was about one inch long ; the grey 
of the segmental divisions spreading a little very faintly 
over the other parts, which then showed large velvety 
black blotchy spots on the middle of the back of each 
segment and at the sides, and black warts rather 
shining at the base of the hairs, and each pair of 
hinder dorsal of these bordered in front by a thin 
margin of dark, rather rusty, or brick-red, thicker 
behind each of the side tubercles (these were the re- 
mains of the previous red band across each segment, 
showing narrow between the trapezoidals, and wider 
behind the side wart) ; along the belly was a broad 
central stripe of dirty pinkish, having a few black dots 
on those segments which bear no legs ; on each seg- 
ment near the beginning of the white dorsal marking 
were two isolated white specks, one on either side, 
sometimes just connected with the dorsal mark by the 
finest possible thread of white ; and the same occurred 
at the hinder part of the segment behind the posterior 
pair of the trapezoidal tubercles. 

The earliest of the two was full-fed by June 29th, 
and the other by July.* The former spun a few 
threads, drawing two leaves partly together with very 
open meshes, and pupated therein. This pupa was 
barely half an inch long, and one-eighth of an inch in 
diameter at the thickest part across the ends of the 
wing covers, from which point the three flexible rings 
were deeply cut, but with very slight tapering of the 
form of the abdomen, which at the end was very bluntly 
rounded off and furnished with eight fine- pointed 
bristles ; the head tolerably well defined from the 
thorax, and this again also from the back of the abdo- 
men, which swelled out thence. I figured the pupa on 
the 5th of July ; the colour was then a very rich 
orange-brown, the eye-pieces black, wing-covers mar- 
gined with darker brown, and the nervures strongly 

* A blank left for the date.— H. T. S. 



DEIOPEIA PULOHELLA. 55 

marked with blackish-brown, this latter colour occu- 
pying the whole of the tips of the wings ; on the thorax 
was a broad, dumpy, U-shaped blackish-brown mark, 
and a narrow transverse linear bar of the same blackish- 
brown across the middle of each segment on the back 
of the abdomen, and a darkish brown line and similar 
transverse bars on the ventral surface ; the whole pupa 
very glossy. 

On the 25th of July, 1878, I received from Mr. 
Tug well fourteen eggs, part of a batch of a hundred 
laid by a bred female, which had paired ; they were 
laid singly on coarse muslin. The shape of the egg 
is globular, but depressed a little beneath ; it is appa- 
rently smooth- surfaced. On their arrival they were 
yellow, some a deep yellow, almost orange, and very 
shining. The next day seven had changed colour to 
darkish grey-brown, showing a blackish-grey blotch 
in the centre beneath the top of the egg ; three of the 
others showed central faint orange-brownish similar 
blotches through their yellow shells, and two were 
shrivelling ; in the evening of the same day (July 26th) 
seven larvaa were hatched. 

When first hatched the larva was of a dark grey-brown 
colour, with a faintly paler dorsal line ; head blackish, 
and a blackish plate on the second segment ; minute 
black dots and hairs on the body. The first moult 
occurred on July 31st and August 1st, when the larvae 
became orange-ochreous in colour, with minute black 
dots as before ; the second moult occurred August 3rd, 
4th, and 5th, for some were already in advance of the 
others. The larva was now brownish-orange, of rather 
a dingy hue, with a faint pale dorsal line, and a broader 
faint pale spiracular stripe ; the head, the small plate 
on the second segment, and the tubercular warts 
blackish-brown. The third moult was attained by 
the most forward larva August 5th, another was wait- 
ing for the operation, the other four not being so far 
advanced, indeed, one had a few hours ago completed 
its second moult. I saw one larva eating part of its 



56 DEI0PE1A PULOHELLA. 

cast skin. After the third moult the colour changed 
to a dark lurid purple, with faint whitish dorsal and 
spiracular stripes, the head, small plate on second 
segment, and tubercular warts blackish as before. 
At this time it fed on the leaves and gnawed the rind 
of the stalks. 

A lens now showed the hairs to be barbed, those on 
the back black, and the lateral ones white, assimila- 
ting well with the hairs of the plant, and as parts of 
some of the leaves turn blackish the larva is protected 
by its resemblance in colour. 

As the larva grows in its third coat the brick-red 
transverse bands are developed across the middle of 
the segments. On the 21st of August the most for- 
ward larva was laid up, waiting for its fourth moult, 
which occurred early in the morning of the 23rd ; the 
larva then entered the black stage, with scarcely a 
trace of the red bands ; the second larva had also 
developed its third coat into an orange-buff colour, 
with white dorsal and spiracular stripes and black 
tubercular spots. It moulted August 26th, and was 
then blacker at the spots than before, with the white 
occupying more space at each end of a segment, where 
a little smoky-grey appears at the sides, thus restrict- 
ing the orange-buff to a transverse band across the 
back as far as the spiracular region. This was now 
over its fourth moult, consequently in its fifth coat. 
(W. B., Note Book III, 236.) 



Lasiooampa queecus. 
Plate XL VII, fig. 2. 

On the 8th of June, 1868, Mr. Doubleday sent me 
two larvse found at Epping, which he assured me 
were the true L. quercus. They came to me with 
hawthorn. 

Without going into a lengthened description of 



LASIOCAMPA QUERCUS. 57 

structure and disposition of hairs, it will suffice to 
mention the characters which chiefly distinguished 
these larvae. 

The general colour of the hairs above the subdorsal 
stripe was of a rather light brown, but below and on 
the ventral surface darker brown. Along the sub- 
dorsal region there was a large triangular mark or 
streak of white with black centre. Besides the much- 
interrupted white subdorsal streak on the third and 
fourth segments, there was just above it on the black 
rings a whitish oval or shuttle- shaped mark with a 
black spot within it near its anterior margin. The 
white subdorsal stripe appeared to be continuous on 
all the black velvety parts of the body that were not 
hidden with hairs, for these interrupted it from view 
about the middle of each segment ; from the subdorsal 
stripe oblique white streaks flowed backwards near the 
beginning of each segment ; those beyond the thoracic 
ones were spotted or mottled with dull red below. 
Above the legs were two ivhitish and red dull stripes, 
with indications of an interrupted middle line between 
them. The oval spiracles were white. (W. B., Note 
Book II, 185.) 

On the 25th of August, 1875, a pair of this species 
in cop. were brought to me, and the female laid a great 
number of eggs all loose in a box. 

The egg is large, of a regular oval form, smooth 
and shining, of a pale drab colour, irregularly blotched 
with light brown. A few days before hatching they 
become wholly brown, and after the extrusion of the 
larva the shell regains its previous colouring. 

The larvae were hatched on the 12th of September, 
and were a quarter of an inch long, and hairy. 
(W. B., Note Book III, 37.) 



58 LASIOCAMPA QUERCUS VAR. OALLUN2E. 



Lasiooampa quercus, var. callunj;. 
Plate XL VII, fig. 3. 

On the 8th of June, 1868, seven of these larvae were 
sent me by Mr. Doubleday; they were feeding on 
hawthorn. 

The general colour of the hairs above the subdorsal 
region was a bright golden brown, darker or lighter 
in individuals, but very bright and glossy ; below, on 
the sides, the hairs were deep blackish-brown, the 
ventral surface still darker brown and nearly black. 
The triangular subdorsal mark on the second segment 
was just edged above with white, but was chiefly bright 
red, and the same with the ear-like subdorsal marks, 
of which one was about the middle of the third and 
one on the fourth segment. 

There was no subdorsal strife, but only a row of 
subdorsal spots, one behind each segmental division; 
these spots had much the character of a triangular 
oblique streak of red, having in some individuals the 
anterior apex white, but in others wholly bright red. 
There was only one stripe above the legs; this was red 
and only obscurely visible. The oval spiracles white, 
with a fine hair -like black line down the centre, marking 
the aperture. (W. B., Note Book II, 186.) 



P(ECILOCAMPA POPULI. 

Plate XL VIII, fig. 2. 

On the 11th of June, 1874, I found a full-grown 
larva at rest on a branch of birch at Ems worth ; it was 
about an inch and three-quarters in length, rounded 
above, rather flattened beneath ; the ventral prolegs 
rather sprawling ; the head full and rounded, but 
decidedly smaller than the second segment ; the body 
of uniform size or nearly so, though when stretched 



PCEOILOCAMPA POPULI. 59 

out and walking it tapered a very little in front and 
rather more at the two hinder segments. 

The head was bluish-grey, freckled with reddish- 
and brownish-grey ; the front of the second segment 
margined with bluish-grey, followed by a fusiform 
mark of brown divided dorsally by a pale line. On 
the back of the other segments was a series of dark 
grey blotches, bearing the forms of inverted urns ; 
they were freckled with blackish atoms ; their apices 
placed hindmost were the darkest. Through these 
marks ran the darker dorsal line, and within them, on 
either side of the dorsal line, were two acute angular 
marks of bright ochreous-orange extending trans- 
versely ; the sides below were somewhat crenulated 
with curves of dark grey on a whitish ground, and 
above them was a large blotch or suffusion of ochreous- 
orange, freckled with dark grey and surrounded above 
with a blotch in front and a larger blotch behind, of 
squarish form, dark grey, finely freckled with blackish 
like the curved blotches below. The oval spiracles 
were blackish, with a narrow whitish centre but very 
inconspicuous ; the ventral prolegs were pale grey, 
streaked with darker grey, and tipped with brownish- 
grey hooks. 

The dorsal marks on the third and fourth segments 
were blackish and rather conspicuously relieved by a 
marginal side blotch behind of whitish, which was but 
faintly indicated on the other segments. On the third 
and fourth segments were oblique side streaks of dark 
grey downwards and forwards. At the end of the 
sixth and beginning of the seventh segments the dark 
dorsal blotches were relieved on either side by con- 
spicuous large whitish blotches. The belly and inner 
surface of the ventral prolegs were buff-yellow, and 
each segment had a central black spot (much larger 
on the leg-bearing segments) in the middle of the 
body ; on either side of the front of the second seg- 
ment was a round wart-like tubercle. The whole 
upper surface of the body and head was covered with 



60 P(EC[LOCAMPA POPULI. 

a fine pubescence, the sides being fringed below with 
more numerous and rather longer grey hairs, inter- 
spersed with a few still longer of a dark brown colour. 
The surface of the belly very slightly pubescent. 

On the 14th of June it was shortened and had begun 
to spin the threads for its cocoon. (W. B., Note 
Book II, 72.) 



Odonestis potatoria. 
Plate L, fig. 3. 

On the 6th of August, 1876, a female moth was 
taken in the dusk of evening by Mr. Henry Terry in his 
haod as she flew past the door. He brought her into 
me to see what his capture was, and found she had 
laid twelve eggs whilst in his hand ; these I kept for 
description. 

The egg is rather large, roundish-ovate, some being 
of a rounder shape than others, having a small, very 
shallow circular depression above, and a deeper one 
beneath, the surface smooth, the colour opaque 
shining white, like porcelain ; the depressions above 
and below are light greyish-green, and also the zones 
which at some distance surround each depression, and 
a smallish depressed round spot of the same colour is 
at one end of the egg, midway between the two zones. 
(W. B., Note Book III, 141.) 



Endromis versicolor. 
Plate LI, fig. 3. 

A long-cherished desire of obtaining eggs of this 
species, for the purpose of watching the larva through 
all its stages, was gratified on the 0th of May, 1B81, 
when a dozen, laid on bits of paper and birch twig, 
were sent me by Mr. H. McArthur from Rannoch. 



ENDROMIS VERSICOLOR. 61 

The larvae began to hatch in the early morning of 
May 22nd, and continued to appear at intervals 
throughout that day and up to the next morning, when 
the two latest were hatched. 

At once the young larvae took readily to birch as 
their food, and moulted the first time on the 28th to 
30th of the month ; on the 3rd of June most of them 
had again moulted, and on the 9th and 10th they 
moulted the third time ; their last moult (the fourth) 
began on the 17th, and concluded within a few follow- 
ing days. 

Full growth was attained by some on the 26th of 
June, and from this date onward the remainder matured 
at intervals one after another until the 9th of July, 
when the last larva retired into the moss provided for 
the purpose. 

In 1882 I was prevented from looking into their 
cage until the 1st of April, when I saw some specimens 
had already been out some time, as three or four were 
dead and much shattered ; after this, on the 3rd, a 
male and two females emerged, and another female on 
the 8th ; three pupae remained over until the present 
year, 1883, when on April 12th a male was bred, 
followed on the 18th by another, and on the 21st by a 
female, the males being much finer specimens than 
those of the previous year. 

The egg of versicolor is of a good size, about 2 mm. 
in length, and rather more than 1 mm. wide, in shape 
much like that of a brick with rounded-off angles, 
slightly depressed on the upper side, sometimes on 
both sides, the surface apparently smooth and very 
glossy ; when first laid, it is of a light green colour, 
but this, in the course of a few days, changes to a 
dark brownish-purple, much the colour of a fresh 
birch twig. This lasts for about fifteen days and it 
then assumes a purplish,- violet tint, gleaming like an 
amethyst, and the interior sems a little cloudy ; a few 
hours later, it is fainter and pinkish, and then the larva 
soon hatches. The empty shell, with the circular hole 



62 ENDROMIS VERSICOLOR. 

of egress at one end, still retains a faint tinge of pinkish- 
violet after the larva has escaped. 

On leaving the egg-shell, the larva is a stout and 
robust creature of cylindrical figure ; the head, as usual 
at this time, the largest segment, is of a dark black 
colour, with greenish mouth ; the body velvety black, 
with a dingy olive-greenish plate on the second segment, 
having a wide black dorsal division; on the other 
segments are olivaceous greenish-yellow, tubercular 
warts, each anterior pair on the back being distinctly 
larger than the others, which are very minute, all 
bearing a few weak, soft yellowish hairs. A black 
dorsal blunt projection is on the twelfth segment ; the 
anal plate and outer sides of the anal legs are pale 
olive-greenish-yellow ; the ventral prolegs are blackish 
on the outside with greenish inner side, the anterior 
legs olivaceous yellow and shining. 

From the first, they at intervals fed on two particular 
leaves near the top of the birch spray, whereon they 
had all assembled, holding to the twig by their ventral 
anal prolegs only, the fore part of each body being 
bent back away from the twig, leaving the anterior 
legs free ; by the fourth day their colouring had become 
dingy blackish- olive, with the mouth orange-ochreous, 
a blackish dorsal line, black tubercular spots, a conical 
hump on the twelfth segment, a faintly paler spiracular 
ridge on the thoracic region, and the anterior legs 
pale orange, with black bases. 

After the first moult, the ground colour was of a 
subdued green, thickly freckled with black atoms ; the 
head and plate on second segment paler, of sober 
greenish-yellow, as were also the spiracular ridge on the 
thoracic segments, and a green backward- slanting 
stripe on the side of each of the others, and this was 
still paler and yellower on the eleventh and twelfth, on 
which last a stripe began at the top of the blunt 
eminence ; the anal flap was margined with the same 
colour ; the head was marked with two black stripes on 
either side ; a black dorsal line divided the front plate 



ENDBOMIS VERSICOLOR. 63 

and continued throughout over the hump as far as the 
anal flap. 

After the second moult, they were an inch long, and 
then broke up their society, and separated for inde- 
pendent existence, yet were sufficiently amiable, when- 
ever they chanced to find themselves near each other, 
to agree perfectly well at any time. While resting, 
they still elevated the front part of their bodies as 
when younger. At this stage, the colour of the back 
was much lighter green, the dorsal line dark green, 
except at the apex of the hump, where it was black ; the 
sides were of a fuller green finely dotted with black. On 
the back the dots showed greenish, though they had 
become nearly obsolete there ; the stripes on the head 
were alternately whitish-yellow and dark green, on 
the thoracic segments the whitish spiracular ridge was 
conspicuous, as also on the other segments were the side 
stripes of yellowish- white bordered above with deep 
green, and these alsonow not only reached the segmental 
division in their downward slant, but crossed it, and 
were thence continued narrowly and obscurely below 
on the segment following. 

After the third moult, their growth was quick ; two 
days' feeding increased the length from 1 inch 3 lines 
to 1 inch 4^ lines, with greater stoutness also in pro- 
portion, the thoracic segments decidedly tapering to 
the small head ; the relative colouring much as before, 
paler whitish-yellow-green on the back, with deeper 
green dorsal line, black at top of the prolonged hump, 
which was now seen to be slightly divided into two 
blunt points ; the yellowish side stripes margined both 
above and below with deep green, and the sides below 
them of still deeper green, irrorated with fine black 
dots, except just where the attenuated continuations 
of the side stripes could be traced; the bases of the 
anterior legs black. 

After the fourth and last moult, their docile behaviour 
continued to be remarkable, as they showed no dis- 
inclination to be handled, but grew quite lethargic, 



64 ENDR0M1S VERSICOLOR. 

often sleeping side by side contentedly like so many fat 
pigs ; but when awake they made good use of their time, 
consuming a great quantity of birch, and their growth 
was commensurate, for by the 26th of June some were 
2 inches 3 lines in length, others, later, as much as 2 
inches 7 lines, and bulky in proportion ; the head very 
small, with the thoracic segments rapidly tapering to 
it, and retractile as in Ghoerocampa, though to a less 
extent. 

The middle of the body is rather the thickest, and 
the twelfth segment, with its humped elevation, bluntly 
pointed and slightly divided, slopes backward at an 
angle to the anal flap ; the ventral and anal prolegs are 
developed much after the fashion of Smerinthus ; the 
other segments are lightly subdivided into four nearly 
equal portions by slight wrinkles, the segmental 
divisions more strongly defined, especially on the belly. 
The skin is soft and smooth, glistening on the head, 
which is green, and has two whitish or yellowish-white 
stripes beginning on either side, and continuing to the 
end of the thoracic segments, the uppermost as a sub- 
dorsal, and the lower as an inflated spiracular stripe ; 
the back is pale opaque green, slightly inclining to 
yellowish in the lightest, and to bluish in the deepest 
portions and in the dorsal line ; below the yellow 
stripes, which are bordered above with green, the 
ground colour of the sides is of a very deep and rich 
full green, increased in depth by the close irroration of 
minute black dots, and relieved by the white oval 
spiracles delicately outlined with black ; in front of 
these comes a thin line of quiet ochreous-greenish, as 
though a continuation of the slanting stripe from the 
preceding segment, more noticeable on approaching 
the ventral prolegs, which, like the base of the anal 
pair, are bright crimson ; the whitish-yellow stripe on 
the side of the eleventh segment continues downward 
beneath the spiracle on the twelfth. From the top of 
the white horn-like hump, which is divided by a thin 
line of black, a whitish stripe descends on either side in 



ENDROMJS VERSICOLOR. 65 

a slight backward curve, and the anal flap is margined 
with yellowish ; the anterior legs are pale green, some- 
times tipped with red, and with a black hook. 

When full-fed, all the green colours of the larva 
change to brown, and it becomes restless until it finds 
the moss and leaves needful for its retirement and the 
construction of its cocoon. The cocoon varies in 
length from 1 inch 4 lines to 1 inch 7 lines, and is of 
long elliptical shape, being from 6 to 8 inches in width ; 
it is composed of an open-worked reticulation of coarse 
black or black-brown silk threads, with round or broad 
oval interstices ; the fabric is extremely strong, tough, 
and elastic, covered externally with moss and birch 
leaves firmly adherent. 

About a week or ten days before the time of 
emergence, the cocoon is pushed by the enclosed pupa 
from a prone to a vertical position, the upper end is 
ruptured, and the pupa protrudes its head through the 
opening, and continues by degrees to advance, until it 
is exposed as far as the end of the wing-covers ; fixed 
in this position, it remains quiet a longer or shorter 
time till the insect is able to escape, though in two or 
three instances the pupa had worked itself out entirely 
free from the cocoon before the moth could be dis- 
closed ; on examination, the pupa could be seen to be 
well furnished with means for facilitating such move- 
ments as described below. 

The pupa itself measures in the male a length of 12 
to 14 or 15 lines, in the female from 17 to 18 lines, or 
occasionally a little more ; it is very stout, the diameter 
across the bulkiest part, at the end of the wing-covers 
in the male, ranges from 4 to 4^ lines, in the female 6 
lines. The head has the mouth-parts a little produced 
in a squarish form, flanked by the curved antenna- 
cases in high relief ; thence the head is bluntly rounded 
above in an unbroken swelling curved outline to the 
end of the wing-covers, including the thorax and upper 
abdominal rings ; the movable abdominal ring is very 
deeply cut, and below those are well defined, the last 

vol. in. 5 



66 ENDR0MIS VERSICOLOR. 

ring ending with a prolonged flattened caudal process 
tapering a little to the squarish extremity, where it 
has a margin of hooks and bristles ; the surface is 
remarkably dull, and rough everywhere, except in the 
divisions between the movable rings, yet even there 
it is quite dull; the roughness on the head, thorax, 
upper rings and wing-covers is striated, granulous, or 
wrinkled ; the movable and lower rings of the abdomen 
have on the back transverse rows of stout and sharp 
hooks pointing behind ; the colour is a sooty or dingy 
brown, black in the abdominal divisions. (W. B., 18, 
6, 83 ; E.M.M. XX, 73.) 



Drepana sicula. 
Plate LII, fig. 4. 

I feel extremely obliged to Messrs. W. H. Grigg and 
W. J. Thomas for giving me the opportunity of 
figuring and describing the larvae of this rare species, 
for although it had been described and figured before, 
and the description in Stainton's manual is correct as 
far as it goes, and one of Hiibner's two figures is also 
correctly drawn, yet as the other of his figures really 
representing D. falcataria has been reproduced under 
a wrong name in a recently published book on moths, 
the importance of a true representation and descrip- 
tion has become all the greater. 

Mr. Grigg first sent me an egg which he had ob- 
tained June 7th, 1884, from one of two captured 
females, kept alive for three days. This egg must 
have been fertilised, for during the next five days it 
went through the first changes of colour, but finally it 
shrivelled up. 

Last year, 1876, Mr. Thomas sent me five eggs, laid 
June 19th by a pinned moth. These eggs, which 
reached me June 23rd, were deposited, three of them 
in a little group on a piece of paper, and the other 
two loose. 



DREPANA SICTJLA. 67 

From one of the eggs on the paper the first larva 
appeared at 11 p.m. June 28th, and a second from 
one of the loose eggs during the night of June 30th, 
another of the eggs on the paper never changed colour, 
and the third, together with the second loose egg 9 
after going through the changes of colour, dried up. 
Thus I was not very fortunate with the eggs, but 
most unhappily the young larvae, after inspiring me 
with a grand hope, caused me a worse disappointment. 

The first that had appeared was supplied within 
twenty minutes of its emergence with a tender leaflet 
and a mature leaf of the common lime {Tilia europcea) ; 
but when I looked at it again, that is, on the following 
morning, it was dead. 

Thinking that perhaps I had failed with the first 
from not giving it time to eat its egg-shell, when the 
second larva was hatched I took care to let the empty 
shell remain with it, and supplied it also with some 
birch as well as lime leaves ; the next day, however, it 
was looking very miserable, unable to stand, and 
rolling about helplessly, and so lingered till its death 
on the third morning, having, as far as I could see, 
eaten nothing whatever since its hatching. 

Why I failed so totally I cannot explain [the expla- 
nation appeared three years later, see p. 72, H. T. S.], 
and can only hope that further experiments with the 
egg may prove more successful. 

Fortunately, however, Mr. Thomas, on September 
10th, 1875, had found a nearly full-grown larva on 
lime, and lent it to me on condition of my sending 
back the imagos if reared, and this I am happy to say 
I was able to do. I received the larva September 13th, 
it became full-fed by the 21st, next day began to spin, 
and the day after was covered in so as to be hidden, 
and the moth, a male, and quite perfect, appeared 
during the evening of the 12th of June, 1876, the first 
British specimen reared in captivity. 

The egg in shape is roundish -oval, the surface very 
finely pitted ; its colour when first laid is pale straw- 



68 DREPANA SIOULA. 

yellow, changing in four days to pink at one end, and 
a little round the circumfereut margin, the centre 
remaining straw-colour ; on the fifth day the pink 
parts turn to the rich red of a ripening strawberry, 
and on the ninth the whole surface becomes purplish- 
brown. 

The newly-hatched larva shows a little of the pecu- 
liarity of the adult form, as very slight rudiments of 
tubercles can just be detected, and the hinder segment 
bears no legs, and is carried at a slight elevation ; the 
colour is a reddish chocolate-brown, with a darker 
brown spot on each lobe of the head. After this point 
I can say nothing till the larva is nearly full grown ; at 
that time I noticed that it span many silken threads to 
keep its food steady and to secure its own foothold, and 
that its manner of eating was to take large pieces out 
from the edges of the lime leaves. At times it rested 
with the head and both the anterior and posterior 
segments of the body elevated, holding on to the leaf 
only by the ventral prolegs, but when walking the 
whole of the segments were carried in a tolerably 
level line, merely undulating a little in its progress, 
though the anal segment had always a slight upward 
turn. 

The full-grown larva measures one inch in length, 
and is in proportion moderately slender, with fourteen 
legs, the anal segment not having legs, but is much 
prolonged to a tapering point curving a little upwards ; 
the head much larger than the second segment, and 
broadest near the mouth, the crown and lobes erect 
and deeply cleft and flattened in front, as is the whole 
face ; on the back of the fourth segment is an elevated 
process, divided into two blunt-tipped tubercles 
(Hiibner's figure above referred to has four pairs of 
tubercles) ; the segments generally are moderately 
defined above, more deeply below, and very delicately 
wrinkled, with three or four subdivisions across the 
back of each ; the head is pinkish flesh colour, and a 
clear margin of this is left on the ridges of the divided 



DKEPANA SICULA. 69 

crown, whence it is relieved below by brown spots on 
the face, and by a dark brown outline of the lobes 
there, and on the middle of each lobe are three lines 
of dark spots, i. e. one spot at the side of the cheek, 
two in the middle, and a few more very minute between 
and above them, also a dark spot or two about the 
mouth, the papillae whitish, the ocelli black, the 
thoracic segments much suffused with brownish- 
ochreous, on which both the dorsal and subdorsal 
regions are strongly blotched with dark crimson- 
brown, the tubercles brown with yellow tips ; hence 
the colour of the back and portions of the sides is a 
brilliant deep yellow, bearing extremely minute elon- 
gated freckles of a dark brown, a series of these 
freckles faintly indicating dorsal and somewhat of sub- 
dorsal lines, and an assemblage of them close together 
constitute a dark spot on each side of the twelfth 
segment near to the only distinctly noticeable spiracle, 
which is there seen as a faint brown oval outline ; a 
fine hair proceeds from each of the usual localities ; 
on the belly, the legs, and some portions of the sides 
the ground colour is pink, deeply tinged and freckled 
above with dark crimson-brown ; this fluctuates along 
the middle segments of the body in two distinct waves 
on either side from the spiracular region of the fifth 
segment, and falls again rather lower each time than 
its previous level, till at the eleventh segment and 
onward to the anal point it covers scarcely more than 
the ventral surface ; the summits of these dark waves 
reach high on the back of the sixth and ninth seg- 
ments in such strong contrast to the yellow as to 
create something of an optical illusion as to the shape 
of the body. 

When the larva prepared for changing it began to 
spin upon the upper surface of a leaf not very far from 
the foot-stalk, and soon contrived to draw upwards a 
portion of the two sides so as to form a cavity, to 
which the midrib of the leaf would be a support 
below, though its actual position was not quite in the 



70 PREPANA SICULA. 

middle of it ; the walls (so to speak) in a short time 
began to approach each other as the foundations were 
progressing, which consisted of three or four thick 
little pads of silk attached on either side opposite each 
other, drawn from time to time closer and closer 
together and connected by very short and stout 
threads ; these were presently rendered still shorter 
by a few threads drawn amongst them from one to 
the other at various angles which seemed to contract 
the opening, and to bring the stud-like fastenings 
almost together. At this point the larva rested for 
awhile, and next morning I found any further watch- 
ing was effectually prevented; the cocoon had been 
made, and the covering of the narrow orifice last spun 
was of a pale, rusty-red colour, which in a day or two 
became a little darker, while the earlier fastenings I 
had seen spun turned purplish-brown, looking like 
dark veins on a decaying part of a leaf. 

On examining the cocoon after the exit of the moth, 
I found it very smooth within and made of very strong 
silk, not easily torn open, of a rusty-brown colour 
like that of the leaf containing it ; the pupa-skin pre- 
sented but little on which to remark in its general 
form, its length a little over half an inch and its 
diameter three-sixteenths ; in figure it was rounded at 
the head, and tapering but little till near the anal tip, 
which was rather prolonged in a blunt point ending 
with three central curled-topped bristles, with a 
shorter one on each side of them ; where the thorax 
and another part had been rubbed a little, the rusty- 
red colour of the pupa-skin without gloss and rather 
rough, could be seen. The rest of the surface was 
covered with a soft adhesive opaque white powder. 
(W. B., 5, 5, 77; E.M.M. XIV, 1.) 

I am now able to offer a few more observations to 
fill up the hiatus in the early part of the history of 
this larva, and am much indebted to Mr. W. H. Grrigg 
for his perseverance and kind help, which have enabled 
me to give the following details : 



DREPANA SICULA. 71 

The eggs are laid by the parent moth on the very 
edges of the leaves, so that when hatched her progeny 
shall find themselves exactly where their food is most 
suitable, for however much they may wander at first, 
it is there, in preference to any other part, the young 
larvse invariably begin to feed on the cuticle of the 
upper surface ; there also they spin a small quantity 
of silk, on which to rest and be secure while moulting. 

After a moult, while the larva is but little more 
than one-eighth of an inch long, the future form is 
indicated, though the segments are strongly wrinkled 
and folded across at intervals, and the previous plain, 
chocolate-brown colour is exchanged for russet-brown, 
relieved by minute dots and transverse bars of yellow. 

After the next moult, the larva begins to cut quite 
through the substance of the leaves, eating out semi- 
circular portions from the edge ; it also begins to 
show on the brown-ground colour little patches of 
very subdued ochreous yellow in angular forms on the 
back. Five days later it spins a quantity of silk, 
tying as it were the leaves loosely together, but firmly, 
for its safety while laid up for another moult, which is 
accomplished after two or three more days, and then 
it has the characteristic party-coloured coat of dark 
velvety-brown and pale cream colour, the tubercular 
process appearing on the fourth segment as two short 
black eminences. It soon spins more silk threads, 
keeping the leaves partly together, and feeds well 
until once more laid up for moulting, and this takes 
place about a week after the previous change of skin. 

Now the rosy-pink colour appears on the belly and 
ventral prolegs, and the yellow parts of the back have 
a thin brown dorsal and fine lateral lines, the yellow 
being much brighter than before ; three distinct 
shapes of yellow are seen on the back, well defined, 
and contrasted by the rich dark brown surrounding 
them, viz. a brilliant pale yellow triangular mark, its 
base at the beginning of the fifth segment, its apex at 
the beginning of the sixth ; an elongated diamond 



72 DREPANA SICULA. 

mark of deeper yellow extends from near the begin- 
ning of the seventh segment to near the end of the 
ninth ; another begins on the front of the tenth and 
includes the pointed tail, relieved on the twelfth 
segment with a brown chevron. As the larva grows 
these yellow marks expand and become united into 
one long fluctuating shape along the back, as I have 
formerly described, though I have since then had one 
variety retain the triangular mark isolated distinctly to 
the end of its larval existence ; and another with the 
yellow colour rather inclining to drab. 

In reference to my former account of the species 
(p. 67), wherein mention was made of two young 
larvae dying rather than eat the lime supplied to them, 
and that yet only the year before a nearly mature 
larva had thriven on that food well enough, it is 
now needful to state that what seemed to me then so 
inexplicable, received afterwards an easy solution 
when Mr. Grigg sent me some lime gathered in the 
haunts of D. sicula, leaves whose smaller size and 
qualities of texture and colour were different from 
those the little larvae rejected. It was a great satis- 
faction, then, on visiting the trees where, without 
thought of any particular species of lime, I had first 
gathered food for the adult larva, to find that they 
were Tilia parvifolia, and that T. europcea also grew 
at no great distance, to which, by a mischance, the 
next year at night my footsteps had been directed, an 
incident proving the importance of having the proper 
name when allusion is made to trees or plants as food 
for larvae. (W. B., 10, 10, 80; E.M.M. XVII, 122.) 



HETEROGENEA ASELLUS. 73 

Drepana HAMULA. 
Plate LIII, fig. 2. 

On the 27th of August, 1879, I received from Mr. 
W. R. Jeffrey a dozen eggs laid by a captive female ; 
they were laid between the 18th and 20th of August on 
the edges of leaves of oak, here and there one on the 
very edge of a leaf. 

At first they were greenish-white, but in the course 
of two or three days they changed to a light fawn 
colour, and afterwards to a bright deep red at each 
end of the shell, with an irregular blotch of fawn 
colour glistening in the mid-surface. 

In shape the egg is oval, with a depression on its 
upper surface and ribbed longitudinally. 

On the 30th two larvas were hatched, and two more 
on the 31st, one of which died soon after without 
feeding (of the remaining eggs some did not change 
colour, others turned red, but afterwards shrivelled up). 

The newly-hatched larva carries its hinder segments 
a little elevated ; it is brown, with the head paler. On 
the 7th September the first moult was over. (W. B., 
Note Book III, 289.) 

HeTEROGENEA ASELLUS. 

Plate LIII, fig. 7. 

On the 13th October, 1872, I had the good fortune 
to receive an example of the larva of this species, found 
on a beech tree near Marlow, and kindly presented to 
me by the Rev. B. Smith. 

For two days the larva continued to feed at intervals 
on the edges of beech leaves, and on the 16th it spun 
its cocoon on the under surface near the edge of one 
of the leaves, and the perfect insect, a female, came 
forth on the 7th July, 1873. 

This larva, when moving and fully stretched out, 



74 HETEROGENEA ASELLUS. 

measured about half an inch long, and a quarter of an 
inch broad across the middle of the body, whence it 
tapered towards each end ; but in repose, or when dis- 
turbed, its length did not exceed three-eighths of an 
inch, as the head and the second segment were then 
entirely retracted, so that the front part of the body- 
appeared but little tapered, and broadly truncate, 
though somewhat rounded. When protruded, the head 
was seen to be very small, and rather flattened as in 
the Lycdenidx ; the anal extremity was rounded ; viewed 
sideways the back appeared somewhat arched, and the 
ventral surface was in close contact with the leaf. The 
segments were not marked in the usual way by trans- 
verse folds, but only by narrow dimpled depressions ; 
there were also little circular dimples on the back, one 
in the centre of the front of each segment, and two at 
the back in the subdorsal region ; this region, being a 
little raised on each side, formed a slight dorsal hollow. 

The six anterior legs, though minute, were yet dis- 
tinctly to be seen when the larva was in motion, but 
no ventral or anal legs were perceptible, and instead 
of them it had along the sides on the margin of the 
belly, which was deeply depressed along the middle, a 
soft projecting ridge of extremely flexible skin. This 
served very well the purpose of legs by its undulatory 
movement from behind forwards ; one wave at a time, 
formed under each segment, slowly advancing and 
subsiding in regular succession as far forwards as the 
fifth segment. 

The head was smooth and shining, the back and 
sides rather so, though the skin there was covered 
with a pubescence, but this was so fine as to be 
seen only with a powerful lens ; it was noticeable that 
the dimpled spots were for the most part paler than 
the rest, and that a few short and very minute bristles 
were scattered at each extremity, and at intervals 
along the back. 

The ground colour was a pale yellowish-green, 
watery looking along the sides, where it soon faded 



HETEROGENEA ASELLUS. 75 

into something of a pale flesh tint beneath ; on the 
back, beginning at the front of the third segment, was 
a broad, olive-brown, extensive mark, reminding one 
somewhat of the dark saddle on Gerura vinula ; this 
mark lessened in breadth a little on the fifth segment, 
and then grew broader on the sixth, attaining its 
greatest breadth on the seventh and eighth, where it 
reached low on the sides ; it began to decrease again 
on the ninth and thence gradually narrowed to the 
anal tip. The olive-brown was darkest on the third 
and fourth segments, and there was throughout an 
outline of darker brown ; this was further relieved 
below by a pale, sulphur-yellow border, which enlarged 
to a spot on the side of the fifth segment, with smaller 
spots on the fourth and sixth ; the second segment 
was pale yellowish-green, and also the head, with a 
slight tinge of brown, the mouth edged above and on 
each side with dark brown, papillas yellowish-green. 
A dark brown dorsal vessel could be seen through the 
olive on the back as far as the end of the tenth seg- 
ment ; the moving skin of the under surface was almost 
colourless, with a clear, pellucid, jelly-like appearance. 

The cocoon was a quarter of an inch long, two lines 
broad, of a very short elliptical form, bearing a great 
resemblance to a gall excrescence ; a few fine threads 
formed a kind of network round its base attached to 
the leaf; it was dark dull brown, with blotches of a 
pale grey film spreading irregularly over the upper 
surface, as though it bore a delicate lichenous growth. 

The pupa-skin when extracted was but a trifle less 
than a quarter of an inch long, and thick in propor- 
tion, the abdomen bent under, which gave it rather a 
rounded form ; the abdominal segmental divisions were 
distinct, as were the parts of the head and thorax ; 
the wing cases were well developed and projecting; it 
was all very smooth and polished, and of a transparent 
whity-brown colour, (W. B., 12, 7, 73; E.M.M. X, 
70.) 

On the 13th July (1877) the Rev. B. Smith, of 



76 HETEROGENEA ASELLUS. 

Marlow, kindly sent me a few eggs, procured by Mr. 
Felix Parker, together with the parent female, which 
had a small bunch of eggs protruding from the ovi- 
positor ; the others were laid on the side of a chip box, 
agglomerated together. 

Viewed with a lens they appeared somewhat of a 
drop shape, but ill defined, from their being connected 
together in little lumps, the colour very pale, shining, 
transparent, and gelatinous-looking, otherwise much 
the colour of the chip. By the end of the month they 
began to grow yellowish, and then to be tinged with 
the colour of brown sherry in parts of the little masses ; 
then they began to hatch. At this critical moment, 
being otherwise engaged for some hours, I was unable 
to know that they were hatched and requiring food, 
though I was keeping them in a glass-topped box in 
order to observe the changes of colour. When I 
returned to them all were dead except one, a mere 
speck, which was slowly moving on the chip ; one 
dead one lay at the bottom of the box, and others I 
found dead, wedged into the junction of the box and 
its lid, As well as my strongest lens would show them 
to me, these very small specks of creatures were of an 
ovate roundish figure, dark brown above and pale 
greenish beneath, — in short, miniature representations, 
apparently, in all respects of the mature larva. 

The solitary living larva I placed on a leaf of beech, 
and put two other leaves over it, but on looking for it 
two days later was unable to see it, and concluded it 
had somehow escaped, probably through the muslin 
cover of the little perforated box in which it was con- 
fined. (W. B., Note-Book III, 200.) 



PARASITES. 



77 



The following list of parasites, bred from the larvae 
or pupae of the species included in the present volume, 
has been kindly prepared by Mr. Gr. C. Bignell, F.E.S. 
— H. T. S. 



Host. 



Diloba cceruleocepaala 



Clostera reclusa. 



Pygara bucephala. 



Dasychira fascelina .. 
„ pudibunda 



Demas coryli . . , 
Orgyia antiqua 



Stilpnotia salicis 



Porthesia chrysorrhcea 
,, auriflua 



Lithosia complanula. 

CEnistis quadra 

Gnophria rubricollis. 
Nudaria mundana . 

Nolo, albulalis 

Arctia caja 



Pakasite. 



*Mesochorus formosus, Bridg- 
man 

Apanteles difficilis, Nees 

Apanteles fulvipes, Haliday .... 

Pimpla graminellte, Schrank 
Campoplex mixtus, Fabricius 



By whom bred. 



Campoplex falcator, Thunb 

Pimpla instigator, Fabricius . . 

Campoplex ebeninus, Graven- \ 
horst ; 

Graven 



Trogus alboguttatus, 
horst 

Limneria unicincta, Gravenhorst 

Apanteles triangulator, Wesmael 

Exorista gnava, Meigen 

Schizoloma amicta, Fabricius ... 

Limneria obscurella, Holmgren . 

Mesochorus stigmaticus, Thomp- 
son 

Apanteles solitarius, Ratzeburg 

Pimpla instigator, Fabricius ... 

Pelecy stoma lutea, Nees 

Apanteles salebrosus, Marshall ] 

Pimpla instigator, Fabricius 
Pimpla instigator, Fabricius 
Apanteles fulvipes, Haliday . 
Microgaster posticus, Nees . 
Microgaster connexus, Nees . 
Microgaster globatus, Linne. 
Pimpla instigator, Fabricius 
Eurylabus torvus, Wesmael . 
Casinaria mesozosta, Holmgren 

Limneria Fitchii, Bridgman < 

Pimpla instigator, Fabricius . . . 
Ascogaster rufidens, Wesmael . . . 

Apanteles caite, Bouche \ 

* Hyperparasite on Apanteles difficilis. 



Miss N. P. 

Decie. 

Decie. 

G. C. Bignell 

W. H. B. 

Fletcher. 

Bignell, 

T. A.Marshall, 

F. Norgate. 

Norgate. 

E. A. Fitch. 

Bignell, 

W. H 

Harwood. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Bignell. 
Marshall. 
W. Bennett. 
Norgate. 

Bignell. 

Fitch. 

Fitch. 

Bignell, 

G F. Mathew, 

J. J. Weir. 

Fitch. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

B. A. Bower. 

T. Eedle. 

Marshall. 

C. G. Barrett. 

Bignell, 

W.H.Tugwell. 

Fitch. 

Fitch. 

Bignell, 

W. J. Cross. 



78 



PARASITES. 



Host. 



Arctia caja.... 
(continued) 



„ villica 

Nemeophila planta- 

ginis 
Phragmatobia fuligi- 

nosa 

Spilosoma menthastri 



Parasite. 



Apanteles difficilis, Nees 

Macrocentrus pallipes, Nees 

Baumhaneria vertiginosa, Mei- 
gen 

Thelaira leucozona, Panzer 

Apanteles caite, Bouche 

Apanteles callidus, Haliday 



Callimorpha jacobate . 



Lasiocampa rubi . . . 
„ trifolii 

„ quercus 



Eriogaster lanestris . . 



Pcecilocampa populi. . 

Clisiocampa neustria 
Odonestis potatoria .. 



Ichneumon haglundi, Holmgren 
Limneria interrupta, Holmgren 

Ichneumon sarcitorius, Linne s 

Apanteles ruficrus, Haliday 

Apanteles nothus, Reinhard 

Cryptus migrator, Fabricius 

Cryptus incubitor, Stroem 

Anomalon cylindricum, Bridg- 



Bv whom bred. 



man 



*Mesochorus facialis, Bridgman 
Apanteles difficilis, Nees , 



Apanteles popularis, Haliday < 

f Apanteles difficilis, Nees 

Gravenhorstia picta, Boie 

Cryptus migrator, Fabricius... ] 

Ophion ventricosum, Graven- 
horst 

Limneria rufa, Bridgman 

Bassus nigritarsus, Gravenhorst 



Fitch. 

W.P.Weston. 

Fitch. 

E. A. Butler. 

Eedle. 
Bignell. 

T. R. Billups. 

G. H. Raynor. 

J. Hellins, 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

J. Sang. 

Sang. 

Fitch. 

Bignell. 

Bignell. 

Bignell, 

Butler, 

Marshall, 

R.M.Sotheby 

Bignell. 

R. Mitford. 

Bignell, 

Fitch. 

Marshall. 

Bignell. 
Bignell. 



Metopius micratorius, Fabricius Mrs. Norgate 



Thryptocera bicolor, Meigen 

Earylabus dirus, Gravenhorst < 

Th<Eogenes calopus, Wesmael . . . 

Apanteles difficilis, Nees < 

Exorista vulgaris, Fallen 

Pimpla graminellce, Schrank . . . 



%Rhogas geniculator, Nees 



L 



Bignell. 

Bignell, 
Marshall, 

Sotheby, 
T. Wilson. 

Bignell. 
. B. Robson, 

Bignell. 

Norgate. 
Fitch. 

Bignell, 

Fletcher, 

Mathew. 



* Hyperparasite on Apanteles popularis. 
f Emerging from the young larva before the third moult. 
X The perfect fly emerges from the infested larva while it appears to 
be preparing for the fourth moult. 



PAKASITES. 



79 



Host. 


Paeasite. 


By whom bred. 


Odonestis Rotatoria ") 
(continued) ) 




S. Mosley, 
G. T. Porritt. 


Saturnia carpini 


Ambly teles armatorius, Forster . 


Marshall. 




r 


Barrett, 
J.B.Bridgman 




Cryptus fumipennis, Graven-] 
horst J 


A. Elliot, 




G. Elisha, 




i 


Fitch, 




L 


R. Meldola. 




Pezomachus insolens, Graven- ( 
horst \ 


Barrett, 




Elliot. 




Apanteles immunis, Haliday ... 


Decie. 




r 


Bignell, 




Exorista grandis, Zetterstedt . -{ 


Fitch, 




i 


Mosley. 


Platypteryx lacerti- 
naria 


Apanteles sericeus, Nees 


Bower. 






Drepanafalcataria ... 


Macrocentrus linearis, Fabricius 


Bignell. 


Heterogenea asellus . . . 


Sagaritis declinator, Graven - 
horst 


Bignell. 




Limneria unicincta, Gravenhorst 


Bignell. 


Limacodes testudo ... 


Pelecy stoma lutea, Nees 


Fletcher. 





INDEX. 



PAGE 

Albulalis, Nola . . .41 

Antiqua, Orgyia . . .11 

Asellus, Heterogenea . . 73 

Aureola, Lithosia . . .15 

Ca3ruleocephala, Diloba . 1 
Calluna3, Lasiocampa quercus 58 

var. 

Caniola, Lithosia . . .14 

Centonalis, Nola . . .44 

Complana, Lithosia . . 19 

Complatiula, Lithosia . . 21 



Griseola, Lithosia . 

Hamula, Drepana . 
Helvola, Lithosia . 



. 23 

. 73 

. 16 



Irrorella, Philea . . .36 

Lubricepeda, Spilosoma . 50 

Mesomella, Cybosia . . 34 
Miniata, Miltochrista . . 13 
Molybdeola (sericea), Lithosia 22 



PA GTS 

Mundana, Nudaria . . 37 

Muscerda, Lithosia . . 26 

Nubeculosa, Petasia . . 4 

Populi, Poecilocampa . . 58 

Potatoria, Odonestis . . 60 

Pulchella, Deiopeia . . 52 

Pygmasola, Lithosia . .25 

Quadra, (Enistis . . .29 

Quercus, Lasiocampa . . 56 

— v. Oallunae, Lasiocampa . 58 

Rubricollis, Gnophria . . 34 

Senex, Nudaria . ' .37 
Sericea, Lithosia (molybdeola) 22 

Sicula, Drepana . . .66 

Stramineola, Lithosia . . 17 

Strigula, Nola . . .39 



Trepida, Peridea . 
Versicolor, Endromis 



9 

60 



PLATE XXXVI. 

DlLOBA MRULEOCEPHALA. 

1, young larva after first moult ; 1 a, larva after 
second moult ; 1 b, 1 c, larvre after third moult ; 1 d 9 
larva after last moult. 

See pp. 1 — 4. 

Petasia oassinea. 

2, 2 a, larva after last moult. 

Petasia ntjbeculosa. 

3, 3 a, larva after last moult. Figure 3 is rather 
too long and the back too straight. (W. B.'s MS.) 

See pp. 4 — 9. 

Peridea trepida. 

4, larva before last moult ; 4 a, larva after last 
moult. 

See pp. 9, 10. 



Plate XXXVI. 







v. 








2 at. 




3 a. 




4-ct. 



tr n \r iiii_ 



West, Newman L G° imp 



PLATE XXXVII. 

Clostera reclusa. 

1, larva after last moult. 

Clostera anachoreta. 

2, 2 a, larvsG after last moult. 

Clostkra curtula. 

3, larva after last moult. 

Pyg^ra bucephala. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult. 

PSTLURA MONACHA. 

5, larva after last moult ; 5 a, pupa. 

Hypogymna dispar. 

6, 6 a, larvse after last moult. 



PLATE XXXVIII. 

DaSYCHIRA fascelina. 

1, 1 a, larvse after last moult. 

Dasychira pudibunda. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d, 2 e, larvae after last moult 
(2 is exceptionally small and 2 d unusually large, 
H. T. S.) ; 2/, cocoon ; 2 g 9 pupa. 

Demas coryli. 

3, young larva ; 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, 3 e, 3/, larvse 
after last moult. 



Plate XXXVIII. 




3d. 






3e. 



F. C.Moore lith- 



West.Newman <Sc C° imp 



PLATE XXXIX, 

Orgyia antiqua. 

1, 1 a, lb, larvae after the last moult ; 1 c, cocoon 
with the eggs deposited by the wingless female. 

See pp. 11, 12. 

Orgyia gonostigma. 

2, 2 a, young larvse as found in autumn ; 2 b 9 
larva after last moult, end of May or beginning of 
June. 

LiELTA C^NOSA. 

3, larva after last moult. 

Sttlpnotia salicis. 

4, 4 a, larvae after last moult. 



Plate XXXIX. 






- 












F C.Moore lith. 



West,Newman & C° imp . 



PLATE XL. 

PORTHESIA CHRYSORRHvEA. 

1,1a, larvaB after last moult. 

PORTHESIA AURIFLUA. 

2, larva after last moult; 2 a, cocoon. 

MlLTOCHRISTA MINI ATA. 

3, 3 a 9 3 b, larva3 after last moult. 

See pp. 13, 14. 

LlTHOSIA CANIOLA. 

4, larva after last moult, from green lichens on 
walls, &c. ; 4 a, larva after last moult, from flowers 
of Lotus corniculatus, Howth, Ireland. 

See pp. 14, 15. 

LlTHOSIA AUREOLA. 

5, 5 a 9 larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 15, 16. 

LlTHOSIA HELVOLA. 

6, 6 a, 6 b y larvse after last moult. 

See pp. 16, 17. 



Plate XL, 








3a 






gpHI 




RC.Moare.Mh. 



Weat.Newman &, C?rmp 



W RTTflKT.'F.P clj>h 



PLATE XLI. 

LlTHOSIA STEAM1NEOLA. 

1, 1 a, 1 6, larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 17—19. 

LlTHOSIA COMPLANA. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c 9 2 d, larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 19—21. 

LlTHOSIA COMPLANULA. 

3, 3 a, larvae before last moult ; larva after last 
moult. 

See pp. 21, 22. 

LlTHOSIA MOLYBDEOLA. 

4, 4 a, 4 b y larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 22, 23. 

LlTHOSIA GPJSEOLA. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, 5 d, larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 23, 24. 

LlTHOSIA PYGMjEOLA. 

6, larva after last moult. 

See pp. 25, 26. 

LlTHOSIA MUSCEKDA. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 26—28. 



Plate XLI. 








y 




n> 














F. G.Moore lit.}, 




71. 



West. Newman &. C? imp. 



\f.T nnnwT.'R.R r7^7, 



Plate XLIL 
(Enistis quadra. 

1, arva before last moult; la, lb, 1 c, larva 
after last moult. 

See pp. 29—33. 

GnOPHRIA RUBRICOTiLIS. 

2, larva before last moult ; 2 a, larva after last 
moult. 

See p. 34. 

Cybosia mesomella. 

3, 3 a, young larvae before hibernation; 3 b, 3 c, 
larvae after last moult, in May. 

See pp. 34, 35. 

Philea irrorella. 

4, two larvae after last moult feeding on small 
blackish lichens on stones of sea-beach above high- 
water mark (at Portslade, near Brighton). 

See pp. 36, 37. 



Plate^UI. 







3cl 





F.C.Moore htb. 



W. BUCKLER 6UL. 



West, Newman&Co.iTnp. 



PLATE XLIIL 

NuDARIA MUNDANA. 

1, 1 a, larvae after last moult. 

See p. 37. 

NUDARIA SENEX. 

2, 2 a, 2 &, 2 c, 2 d, larvae after last moult ; 2 6, 
cocoon or pupa-case. 

See pp. 37—39. 

NOLA CUCULLATELLA. 

3, larva after last moult. 

NOLA STRIGULA. 

4, 4 a, 4 &, larvae after last moult. 

See pp. 39 — 41. 

NOLA ALBOLALIS. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae after last moult ; 5 c, cocoon 
attached to a stem. 

See pp. 41 — 43. 

NOLA CENTONALIS. 

6, 6 a, larvae before last moult ; 6 b, larva after 
last moult ; 6 c, cocoon attached to a stem. 

See pp. 44 — 50. 

NOLA CRISTULAL1S. 

7, larva after last moult. 



Plate 1LIII. 




N 



2<x 



^1^ 

^^^% 



2"b 



m 









i 




1<X 




2c 



2d 



2e 








5c 





»• 



5 CL 






5b 



F.CMooi>elith. 







i 




4< CL 



6c 



f: 








6 b )[/"" 





#* 



6<x 




W.BUCRLER deL 



West, Newrn sun &.Co.imp. 



PLATE XLIV. 

Hyperoompa dominula. 

1 larva before last moult ; la, lb, larvae after 
last moult (1 a was copied by Mr. Buckler from a 
drawing by Mr. Stan dish). 

ElJTHEMONIA RUSSULA. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult ; 2 b, pupa. 

Arctia caja. 

3, young larva. N.B. — No figure of the adult 
larva by Mr. Buckler which would bear reproduc- 
tion exists ; being one of our very commonest 
species, it could be figured at any time ; moreover, 
every entomologist is perfectly familiar with the 
larva, and needs no figure of it. — H. T. S. 

Arctia villica. 

4, larva before last moult ; 4 a 9 larva after last 
moult. 

Nemeophila plantaginis. 

5, 5 a, 5 b 9 larvas after last moult. 



PlsLte XLIV. 










> 




la 







TV. BUCKLER cUi. 




PLATE XLV. 

Phragmatobia fuliginosa. 

1, young larva, this moulted the next day and 
became brown and very hairy ; 1 a, larva after last 
moult. 

Spilosoma menthastri. 

2, 2 a, larvaD before last moult; 2 b, 2 c, larvas 
after last moult. 

Spilosoma papyratia. 

3, larva after last moult. 

Spilosoma lubricepeda. 

4, young larva ; 4 a, 4 b 9 larvas after last moult. 

See pp. 50 — 52. 

DlAPHORA MENDIOA. 

5, larva after last moult. 



Plate XLV 












F.C.Moore Hth. 



W.BUCKLEP dud. 



West Newman <5cCo.im.p. 



PLATE XL VI. 

CALLIMORPHA JACOB MM. 

1, la, larvae after last moult. 

EULEPIA CRIBRUM. 

2, larvae after last moult. 

Deiopeia pulchella. 

3 &, 3 b, larvae before last moult ; 3, 3 c, 3 d, 
larvae after last moult; 3 e, two segments of the 
adult larva magnified; 3/, pupa. 

See pp. 52 — 56. 

Lasiocampa rubi. 

4, larva before last moult ; 4 a, larva after last 
moult ; 4 b, pupa ; 4 c, cocoon. 



PlateXm. 










-- 




F.CMcore lrth. 



W. BUCKLER 6Ld,. 



West,Ne"wm£un^cCc imp. 



PLATE XLVIL 

Lasiocampa trifolii. 

1, larva after last moult; 1 a, white variety of 
the adult larva ; 1 b> cocoon. 

Lasiocampa qtjeecus. 

2, larva before last moult ; 2 a, black variety of 
the larva found on sloe ; 2 5, larva after last moult. 

See pp. 56 — 57. 

Lasiocampa qtjeecus, var. oalltsnm. 

3, 3 a, 3 b, young larva ; 3 c, larva before last 
moult ; 3 d, larva after last moult. 

See p. 58. 



Plate XLVI1. 




F.C.Moore Jitk. 



West^Newrnan 5c Co.lith.. 



W.BUCKLER oWl. 



PLATE XLVIII. 

Eriogaster lanestris. 

1, 1 a, larvae before last moult ; 1 b, 1 c, 1 d, larvae 
after last moult ; 1 e, cocoon. 

Fig. 1 d is just a little too thick along the side 
below the yellow markings. (W. B.'s MS.) 

P(EOILOCAMPA POPULI. 

2 b, larva before last moult ; 2, 2 a, 2 c, larvae 
after last moult. (See also Plate XLIX, figs. 1,1 a.) 

See pp. 58 — 60. 



Plate ILYIIL 



/£ 








lb 















P-C.MborelLtk. 



W. BUCKLER del-. 



West ; ]Tewm£m. &C° imp 



PLATE XLIX. 

P(ECIL0CAMPA POPULI. 

1, larva after last moult ; 1 a 9 cocoon. (See also 
Plate XL VIII, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c.) 

See pp. 58—60. 

Teiohiura oeat^gi. 

2, 2 a 9 larvas before last moult ; 2 b 9 2 c, 2 d 9 2 e, 
2 f, lar V39 after last moult ; 2 #, cocoon. 



Plate XLIX 







>^. j 







P. C.Moore Mi 



W. BUCKLER del. 



PLATE L. 

Clisiocampa oasteensis. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, larvae after last moult ; 1 c 9 cocoon. 

Clisiocampa neusteia. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult. 



Odonestis potatoeia. 

3, young larva before hibernation ; 3 a, 3 b 9 larvae 
after last moult ; 3 b shows the characteristic 
attitude assumed by the larva when touched. 

See p. 60. 



Plate L 







F.C. Moore Itk. 



W BUCKLER d*L. 



"WfestjNewmaai StC imp. 



PLATE LI. 

Gasteopaoha quercifolia. 

1, 1 a 9 larvae after last moult ; 1 b, cocoon. 

Gastropacha ilioifolia. 

2, larva after last moult ; 2 a, pupa. 

Endromis versicolor. 

3, 3 a 9 larvae after last moult ; 3 6, pupa. 

See pp. 60 — 66. 



Plate LI. 




P. C.Moore Titk. 



West .Newman &.C° 



imp 



W BUCKLER del 



PLATE LII. 

Saturnia carpini. 

1, larva before last moult; 1 a, 1 6, 1 c, larvae 
after last moult. 

Cilix SPINULA. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult. 

Platypteryx lacertinaria. 

3, 3 a, larvae after last moult. 

Drepana sicula. 

4, larva before last moult ; 4 a 9 4 b, larvae after 
last moult ; 4 c, pupa. 

See pp. 66 — 72. 



Plate LII. 





la 





3<x 





2a 




4<<x 




4 c ^ 



P.C.Moore Hxth. 



"West^TewmaLn &C?imp 



W BUCKLER oLe? 



PLATE LIIL 

Dbepana falcataria. 

1, 1 a 9 larvae after last moult. 

Drepana hamula. 

2, 2 a, larvae after last moult. 

See p. 73. 

Drepana unguioula. 

3, 3 a, larvae after last moult. 

Psyche nigricans. 

4, larva after last moult j 4 a, case of larva. 

Psyche fusoa. 

5, larva after last moult ; 5 a 9 case of larva. 

FUMEA NIT1DELLA. 

6, adult larva and case. 

Heterogenea asellus. 

7, 7 a, adult larvae slightly magnified ; 7 b, adult 
larva natural size on beech leaf ; also the cocoon. 

See pp. 73—76. 

LlMACODES TESTUDO. 

8, 8 a, adult larvae. 



Plate LIII. 









N< 




F.C.MDorelT.tK. 




jfm- 







0- 



7a 



West^bT ewman & C ° Tmp 



W.BUCKLER<W. 



BAY SOCIETY. 



INSTITUTED 1844. 



FOR THE PUBLICATION OF WORKS ON 
NATURAL HISTORY. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION ONE GUINEA. 



LIST 



OF 



COUNCIL, OFFICERS, LOCAL SECRETARIES, 

AND MEMBERS, 



TOGETHER WITH THE 



TITLES OF THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE SOCIETY 
CORRECTED TO FEBRUARY, 1889. 



Counril anir Officers of t|je 5Ug Sonet]), 

Elected lUh June, 1888. 



^xtzibtnt 
Sib JOHN LUBBOCK, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. 



Counril* 



Dr. Bastian, F.R.S. 

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F. Gbut, Esq., F.L.S. 

H. Lee, Esq., F.L.S. 

R. M'Lachlan, Esq., F.R.S. 

Dr. Meiklejohn, F.L.S. 



A. D. Michael, Esq., F.L.S. 
F. P. PASCOE, Esq., F.L.S. 
Dr. P. H. Pye-Smith, F.L.S. 
0. Salvia, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
H. T. Stainton, Esq., F.R.S. 
Prof. C. Stewabt, F.L.S. 
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Dr. E. Haet Vinen, F.L.S. 
J. J. Weie, Esq., F.L.S. 
Lord Walsingham, M.A., F.L.S. 



%xmmxtx. 

Dr. S. J. A. SALTER, F.R.S., F.L.S., Basingfield, Basingstoke, Hants. 

SSjeoefarg. 



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Ashmolean Society, Oxford. 

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Ackland Museum. 



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8 

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9 

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10 



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Esq., Treasurer, 48, The Broadway, London fields, Hackney, E. 

Haeckel, Professor, Jena, Prussia. 

Hailstone, Edward, Esq., F.S.A., Walton Hall, Wakefield. 

Hall, A. E., Esq., Norbury, Sheffield. 

Hancock, John, Esq., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Harbottle, A., Esq., 76, Mandle road, South Stockton. 

Harley, Dr. J., F.L.S., 9, Stratford place, W. 

Harmer, Sidney F., Esq., B.Sc, King's College, Cambridge. 

Harris, Edw., Esq., F.G.S., Rydal Villa, Longton grove, Upper 
Sydenham. 

Harris, J. T., Esq., F.E.S., Burton Bank, Burton-on-Trent. 



11 

Harrison, F., Esq., Junior United Service Club, Charles street, S.W. 

Harvard College, Cambridge, U.S.A. 

Havers, J. C, Esq., Joyce Grove, Nettlebed, Henley-on-Thames. 

Hawker, H. G., Esq., Burleigh, Devonport. 

Hawkshaw, J. C, Esq., 33, Great George street, Westminster, S.W. 

Hepburn, Sir T. B., Bart., Smeaton, Preston Kirk, N.B. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club, Watford. 

Hickling, G. H., Esq., Mudie's Select Library, W.C. 

Hicks, Dr. John B., F.R.S., 24, George street, Hanover square, W. 

Hillier, J. T., Esq., 4, Chapel place, Eamsgate. 

Hilton, James, Esq., 60, Montagu square, W. 

Hinchliff, Miss Katharine M., Worlington House, Instow. 

Holdsworth, E. W. H., Esq., F.L.S., 84, Clifton hill, Abbey road, N.W. 

Hooker, Sir J. D., C.B., M.D., F.R.S., Sunningdale, Berks. 

Hope, G. P., Esq., Upminster Hall, near Romford. 

Hopkinson, John, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., The Grange, St. Alban's, 
Herts. 

Horley, W. L., Esq., Stanboroughs, Hoddeston. 

Houghton, Rev. W., F.L.S., Preston Rectory, Wellington, Salop. 

Hovenden, F., Esq., F.L.S., Glenlea, Thurlow Park, Dulwich, S.E. 

Howden, Dr. J. C, Sunnyside, Montrose. 

Huddersfield Naturalists' Society, A. W. Whiteley, Esq., Hon. Sec, 
We6tgate, Huddersfield. 

Hughes, W. R., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary ', Wood House, Hands- 
wood, Birmingham. 

Hughes, W. Rathbone, Esq., 3, Princes Gate East, Princes Park, 
Liverpool. 

Hull Subscription Library. 

Hunt, John, Esq., Milton of Campsie, Glasgow. 

Hutchinson, Miss E., Grantsfield, Kimbolton, Leominster. 

Huxley, Professor T. H., F.R.S., Science Schools, South Kensington. 



Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



James, H. B., Esq., F.Z.S., R.A.S., Valparaiso, Chili, care of Frank 
James, Esq.. Aldridge, near Walsall, Staffordshire. 

Janson, E. W., Esq., F.E.S., 35, Little Russell street, Bloomsbury. 

Jenner, Charles, Esq., Easter Duddingsten Lodge, Portobello, Edin- 
burgh. 



12 

Jones, Albert H., Esq., Shrublands, Eltham. 

Jordan, Dr. R. C. R., 35, Harborne road, Edgbaston, Birmingham. 



Kane, W. F. de V., Esq., M.R.I.A , F.E.S., Sloperton Lodge, Kings- 
town, Co. Dublin. 

Keays, F. Lovell, Esq., F.L.S., 26, Charles street, St. James', S.W. 

Kenderdine, F., Esq., Morningside, Old Trafford, Manchester. 

Kenrick, G. H., Esq., Whetstone, Somerset road, Edgbaston, Birming- 
ham. 

Keys, J. H., Esq., 8, Princes street, Plymouth. 

Kilmarnock Library, Kilmarnock. 

King, A., Esq., Aspley Guise, Woburn, Bedfordshire. 

Kirby, W. F., Esq., 5, Burlington gardens, Chiswick, W. 



Langdale, H. M., Esq., Thornycroft, Compton, Petersfield, Hants. 

Laver, H., Esq., F.L.S., Colchester. 

Laxton, H., Esq., 41, Harpur street, Bedford. 

Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society. 

Leicester, Alfred, Esq., Holly mount, Albert road, Birkdale, near South- 
port. 

Leicester Free Library, Wellington street, Leicester. 

Leipzig, University of. 

Lemann, F.C., Esq., M.E.S., Blackfriars House, Plymouth. 

Lidstone, W. G., Esq., 79, Union street, Plymouth. 

Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W. 

Lister, Arthur, Esq., F.L.S., Leytonstone. 

Liverpool, Athenaeum. 

Liverpool Free Library. 

Liverpool Library, Lyceum, Liverpool. 

Liverpool Medical Institution. 

Liverpool Microscopical Society. 

Liverpool, Royal Institution. 

Lloyd, A., Esq., F.E.S., The Dome, Bognor, Sussex. 

Lochbuie Marine Institute, Lochbuie, N.B. 

Longstaff, G. B., Esq., M.D., Southfield Grange, West Hill road, 
Wandsworth, S.W. 

London Institution, Finsbury circus, E.C. 

London Library, 12, St. James's square, S.W. 



13 

Loven, Professor, Stockholm. 

Lubbock, Sir J., Bart., M.P., F.L.S., R.S., President, 15, Lombard 

street, E.C. 
Lupton, H., Esq., Lyndhurst, North Grange road, Headingley. 



Marlborough College Natural History Society, Marlborough. 
McGill, H. J., Esq., Aldenham Grammar School, Elstree, Herts. 
McGregor, Rev. J., West Green, Culross, Dunfermlime, N.B. 
Mcintosh, Prof. W. C, M.D., F.R.S., 2, Abbotsford crescent, St. 

Andrew's, N.B. 
McLachlan, R., Esq., F.R.S., West View, Clarendon road, Lewisham, 

S.E. 
McMillan, W. S., Esq., 17, Temple street, Liverpool. 
Maclagan, Sir Douglas, M.D., F.R.S.E., 28, Heriot row, Edinburgh. 
Maclaine, M. G., of Lochbuie, Isle of Mull. 
Madras Government Museum, Madras. 

Major, Charles, Esq., Red Lion Wharf, 69, Upper Thames street, E.C. 
Manchester Free Public Library. 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Mansel-Pleydell, J., Esq., F.L.S., Whatcombe, Blandford. 
Marshall, A. E., Esq., Waldersea, Beckenham. 
Martin, G. M., Esq., Red Hill Lodge, Compton, Wolverhampton. 
Mason, P. B., Esq., F.L.S., Burton-on-Trent. 
Mathew, G. F., Esq., R.N., F.L.S., Z.S., Lee House, Dovercourt, near 

Harwich, Essex. 
Mathews, W., Esq., M.A., F.G.S., 60, Harborne road, Birmingham. 
Matthews, C, Esq., F.E.S., Erme Wood, Ivy Bridge, S. Devon. 
Meiklejohn, Dr. J. W. S., F.L.S., 105, Holland road, Kensington, W. 
Melbourne Public Library. 
Mennell, H. T., Esq., F.L.S., 10, St. Dunstan's buildings, Idol lane, 

E.C. 
Michael, A. D., Esq., F.L.S., Cadogan Mansions, Sloane square, S.W. 
Microscopical Society, Royal, King's College, Strand, London. 
Miller, J. C, Esq., Lynmouth House, Langley road, Elmers End, 

Beckenham, Kent, S.E. 
Mitchell Library, the, Glasgow. 

Mivart, Prof. St. George J.,F.R.S., Chilworth, Guildford. 
Moore, Mrs. E. T., Holmfield, Oakholme road, Sheffield. 
Moseley, Sir T., Rolleston Hall, Burton-on-Trent. 



14 

Munich Royal Library, Munich. 

Murdock, J. Barclay, Esq., F.R.Ph.S.E., Barclay, Langside, Glasgow. 



Neave, B. W., Esq., Lyndhurst, Queen's road, Brownswood park, N. 

Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Newman, T. P., Esq., 54, Hatton garden, E.C. 

Noble, Capt. Jesmond Dene House, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Noble, Wilson, Esq., 43, Warrior square, St. Leonard's-on-Sea. 

Norfolk and Norwich Library, Norwich. 

Norman, Rev. A. Merle, M.A., F.L.S., Burnmoor Rectory, Fencehouses, 

Durham. 
Nottingham Free Library. 
Nottingham Naturalists' Society, per W. H. Kay, Esq., Hon. Sec, 

Gresham Chambers, Nottingham. 



Oldfield, G. W., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., 6, South Bank terrace, Stratford 

road, Kensington, W. 
Owens College, Manchester. 
Oxford, Magdalen College. 



Paisley Philosophical Institute, Paisley. 

Paris National Library, per Messrs. Longmans. 

Parke, Geo. H., Esq., Infield Lodge, Barrow-in-Furness. 

Parker, W. K., Esq., F.R.S., Crowland, Trinity road, Upper Tooting, 

S.W. 
Pascoe, F. P., Esq., F.L.S., 1, Burlington road, Westbourne Park, W. 
Pearce, W. G., 187, Caledonian road, King's Cross, N. 
Peckover, Algernon, Esq., F.L.S., Wisbeach. 
Peel Park Library, Salford, Lancashire. 
Penny, Rev. C. W., Wellington College, Wokingham. 
Penzance Public Library. 

Perthshire Society of Natural Science, Museum, Tay street, Perth. 
Phen6, J. S., Esq., LL.D., F.S.A.,5, Carlton terrace, Oakley street, S.W. 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, U.S.A. 
Pierce, F. Nelson, Esq., 143, Smithdown lane, Liverpool. 
Plymouth Institution, Athenaeum, Plymouth. 
Pole-Carew, Miss C. L., 3, South place, Rutland gate, S.W., and 

Antony, Torpoint, Devonport. 



15 

Pode, E. D. Y., Esq., 133, Fentimans road, S.W. 

Porritt, G. T., Esq., F.L.S., Greenfield House, Huddersfield. 

Poulton, E. B., Esq., Wykeham House, Oxford. 

Power, H., Esq., 37a, Great Cumberland place, Hyde Park, W. 

Preston Free Public Library. 

Pye-Smith, Dr. P. H., 54, Harley street, Cavendish square, W. 



Quekett Microscopical Club, University College, W.C. 



Radcliffe Library, Oxford. 

Radford, D., Esq., Mount Tavy, Tavistock, Devon. 
Ramsay, Sir Andrew C, F.R.S., 7, Victoria terrace, Beaumaris. 
Rashleigh, J., Esq., Menabilly, Par Station, Cornwall. 
Reader, Thomas, Esq., 39, Paternoster row, E.C. 
Reading Microscopical Society, 110, Oxford road, Reading. 
Reynell, Miss, 8, Henrietta Street, Dublin. 
Ripon, Marquis of, F.R.S., F.L.S., 1, Carlton gardens, S.W. 
Robinson, R-ev. F., The Rectory, Castle Eden, Co. Durham. 
Robinson, Isaac, Esq., The Wash, Hertford. 
Robson, J. E., Esq., 15, Northgate, Hartlepool. 
Roper, F. C. S., Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., Palgrave House, Eastbourne. 
Rose, Geo., Esq., Queen street, Barnsley. 
Ross, J. G., Esq., Bathampton Lodge, Bathampton, Bath. 
Rothery, H. C, Esq., M. A., F.L.S., 94, Gloucester terrace, Hyde Park, W. 
Royal Institution, Albemarle street, W. 

Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, 53, Berners street, W. 
Royal Society, Burlington House, London, W. 
Rowe, J. B., Esq., F.L.S., PJympton Lodge, PJympton, S. Devon. 
Rowland-Brown, H., Esq., jun., Oxhey grove, Stanmore. 
Rylands, T. G., Esq., F.L.S., Local Secretary, High Fields, Thelwall, 
near Warrington, 



Salter, Dr. S. J. A., F.R.S., Treasurer, Basingfield, near Basingstoke, 

Hants. 
Salvin, Osbert, Esq., F.R.S., 10, Chandos street, Cavendish square. 
Samson and Wallin, Messrs., London. 
Sanders, Alfred, Esq., F.L.S., Milton, Sittingbourne, Kent. 



16 

Sanford, W. A., Esq., F.G.S., Nynehead Court, near Wellington, 

Somersetshire. 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington. 
Sclater, P. L., Esq., M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., R.S., 11, Hanover square, W. 
Sharpus, F. W., Esq., 30, Compton road, Islington, N. 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society. 
Sheldon, Dr. T. S., Cheshire County Asylum, Macclesfield. 
Shillitoe, B., Esq., 2, Frederick place, Old Jewry, E.G. 
Sinclair, R. S., Esq., 16, Annfield terrace W., Parkhill, Glasgow. 
Sion College Library, Victoria Embankment, W.C. 
Slack, H. I., Esq., F.G.S., Ashdown Cottage, Forest row, Sussex. 
Sladen, Rev. C. A., Burghclere, Newbury. 
Slatter, T. J., Esq., F.G.S., Evesham. 

Smith, Basil Woodd, Esq., F.R.A.S., Branch hill, Hampstead, N.W. 
Smith, F. W., Esq., F.E.S., Hollywood, Lewisham hill, S.E. 
Smith, S. P., Esqf, F.E.S., 22, Rylett road, Shepherd's Bush, W. 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton. 
Sotheran, Messrs., 136, Strand, W.C. 
South London Entomological Society, The Bridge House, London 

Bridge. 
South London Microscopical Club, care of J. Guardia, Esq., Helston 

House, Rozel road, Clapham, S.W. 
South, R., Esq., F.E.S., 12, Abbey gardens, St. John's Wood, N.W. 
Southport Free Library. 

Spicer, Messrs., Brothers, 19, New Bridge street, Blackfriars, E.C. 
St. Andrew's University Library, St. Andrew's. 
Stainton, H. T., Esq., F.R.S., L.S., Mountsfield, Lewisham, S.E. 
Stebbing, Rev. T. R. R., Ephraim Lodge, The Common, Tunbridge 

Wells. 
Stedman, A., Esq., M.R.C.S., L.S.A., L.M., The Croft, Great Book- 
ham, Leatherhead. 
Stephenson, J. W., Esq., Equitable Assurance Office, Mansion-house 

street, E.C. 
Stewart, Prof. C, F.L.S., Royal College of Surgeons, Lincoln's Inn 

Fields, W.C. 
Stockholm Royal Academy, Stockholm. 
Strasbourgh University Library. 

Stubbins, J., Esq., F.G.S., R.M.S., Inglebank, Far Headingly, Leeds. 
Sunderland Subscription Library. 
Swanston, W., Esq., F.G.S., 50, King street, Belfast. 



17 

Thompson, J. C, Esq., F.L.S., R.M.S., Woodstock, Waverley road' 

Liverpool. 
Thornewell, Rev. C. F., The Soho, Burton-on-Trent. 
Tomlinson, J. H., Esq., 7, Kirkgate, Newark. 
Toronto, University of, Canada. 

Torquay Natural History Society, Museum, Babbacombe road, Torquay. 
Townsend, F., Esq., M.A., Honington Hall, Shipston-on-Stour. 
Trimble, Mrs. James, 2, Clarendon road, Southsea, Portsmouth. 
Triibner & Co., Messrs., London. 

Tugwell, W. H., Esq., 6, Lewisham road, Greenwich, S.E. 
Turner, Professor W., F.R.S.E., University of Edinburgh. 
Tyler, Captain Charles, F.L.S., F.G.S., Elberton, New West End, 

Hampstead, N.W. 



University College, London. 

Upsala, University of, Sweden. 

Vass, M., Leipzig. 

Vicars, John, Esq., 8, St. Alban's square, Bootle, Liverpool. 

Vicary, William, Esq., The Priory, Colleton crescent, Exeter. 

Vinen, Dr. E. Hart, F.L.S., 22, Gordon road, Ealing, W. 



Waldegrave, Earl, 13, Montagu place, Montagu square, W. 
Walker, Alfred 0., Esq., Chester. 

Walker, Rev. Dr. F. A., F.L.S., Duis Mallard, Cricklewood, N.W. 
Walsingham, Thomas de Grey, Lord, M.A., F.L.S., Z.S., Merton Hall, 

Thetford, Norfolk. 
Warburgh, J. C, Esq., 8, Porchester terrace, W. 
Warden, Dr. Charles, Greenhurst, 31, Newall street, Birmingham. 
Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington. 
Warwickshire Natural History Society, Warwick. 
Washington Library of Congress, U.S.A. 
Watkinson Library, Harford, Con., U.S.A. 
Webb, S., Esq., Maidstone House, Dover. 
Weir, J. J., Esq., F.L.S., Chirbury, Copers Cope road, Beckenham, 

Kent. 
Wells, J. R., Esq., 20, Fitzroy street, Fitzroy square, W.C. 
Wesley, E. F., Esq., A.K.C., 28, Essex street, Strand, W.C. 
West Kent Natural History Society, Lewisham, S.E. 

b 



18 

Wheeler, F. D., Esq., Paragon House School, Norwich. 

Whittle, F. G., Esq., 2, Cambridge terrace, Lupus street, S.W. 

Wilson, Owen, Esq., F.E.S., Cwmffrwd, Carmarthen. 

Wiltshire, Rev. Professor T., M.A., F.L.S., Treas. G.S., Secretary, 

25, Granville park, Lewisham, London, S.E. 
Wollaston, G. H., Esq., 4, College road, Clifton, near Bristol. 
Wood, J. H., Esq., M.B., Tarrington, Ledbury. 
Woodd, B. T., Esq., Conyngham Hall, Knaresborough, Yorkshire. 
Wright, Professor E. P., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin. 



Yale College, New Havren, U.S. 
York Philosophical Society, York. 



Zoological Society, 11, Hanover square, W. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES 



OF THE 



RAY SOCIETY. 

FROM THEIR COMMENCEMENT, IN 1844, TO 
MARCH, 1889. 



LIST OF THE ANNUAL VOLUMES ISSUED 
BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the First Year, 1844. 

I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans- 

lated by H. E. Strickland, Jun., MA., F.R.S., E. Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, B.A. 8vo. 

II. Memorials of John Ray : consisting of the Life of John 

Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by 
Baron Cuvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the ( Biographie 
Universelle ; ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine- 
raries of Ray, with Notes, by Messrs. Babington and 
Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Second Year, 1845. 

I. Steenstrup on the Alternation of Generations. Translated 

from the German, by George Busk, F.R.S. Three Plates. 
8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part II. Thirteen 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



22 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 

III. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations 
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B. A. ; 
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson, 
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Third Year, 1846. 

I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German 

by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo. 

II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated 

from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and 
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part III. Eleven 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Fourth Year, 1847. 

I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from 

the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo. 

II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the 

German by Messrs. Geo. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A. 
Tulk. 8vo. 

III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusae. 
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Fifth Year, 1848. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. I. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE BAY SOCIETY. 23 

II. Letters of John Ray. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., 

F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixth Year, 1849. 

I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical 

Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates 

8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea. 

By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



For the Seventh Year, 1850. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. II. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighth Year, 1851. 

I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the 

Rev. W. A. Leighton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates. 8vo. 



24 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Ninth Year, 1852. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. III. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VI. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Tenth Year, 1853. 

I. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Volume of Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, in- 

cluding Braun on Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates. 
8vo. 



For the Eleventh Year, 1854. 

Bibliographia Zoologiae et Geologiae. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twelfth Year, 1855. 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 
Messrs. Alder and Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirteenth Year, 1856. 

A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro- 
fessor Allman, F.R.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 25 



For the Fourteenth Year, 1857. 

A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain. 
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Fifteenth Year, 1858. 

The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Sixteenth Year, 1859. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp. 
4to. 



For the Seventeenth Year, 1860. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B. 
Carpenter, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, assisted by W. K. 
Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty- 
two Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Eighteenth Year, 1861. 

On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the 
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the 
Coniferse. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by 
Frederick Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five 
Plates. 8vo. 



26 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Nineteenth Year, 1862. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
John Blackwall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



For the Twentieth Year, 1863. 

The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. Gunther, 
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-first Year, 1864. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-second Year, 1865. 

I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By Messrs. J. W. 

Douglas and John Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadae. By J. S. Bower- 

bank, LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-third Year, 1866. 

I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical, 
and Structural, and Physiological Memoirs. Edited by 
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 27 

II. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht, 

Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower, 
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867. 

I. A Monograph on the Structure and Development of the 

Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868. 

I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L.S, 

8vo. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to. 
(Completing the work.) 



For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Twenty-seventh Year, 1870. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 



28 LIST OF ANNUAL VOLUMES 



For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871. 

A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirtieth Year, 1873. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.B.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 



For the Thirty-first Year, 1874. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadae. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates, 8vo. 



For the Thirty-second Year, 1875. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. I. Forty-two Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-third Year, 1876. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 



ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 29 



For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S, Vol. II. Fifty Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. II. Forty-nine Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879. 

I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 

M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the work.) 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By the late 

J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions, 
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven- 
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 



For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo. 



For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. 
By P. Cameron. Vol. I. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 



30 LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 



For the Thirty-ninth Year, 1882. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 



For the Fortieth Year, 1883. 

British Oribatidae. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-first Year, 1884. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-second Year, 1885. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. I. The 
Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 



For the Forty-third Year, 1886. 

The Larvee of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited bv H. T. Stainton. Vol. II. The 
Hawk-Moths and part of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 



LIST OF VOLUMES ISSUED BY THE RAY SOCIETY. 31 



For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887. 

British Oribatidse. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. II. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. (Completing the Work.) 



For the Forty-fifth Year, 1888. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton. Vol. III. The 
concluding portion of the Bombyces. Eighteen Plates. 
8vo. 



PRINTED BY ADLABD AND SON, BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE. 



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